Corporate Finance Assignment

Corporate Finance Assignment Words: 571

Corporate finance: Corporate finance is an area of finance dealing with the financial decisions corporations make and the tools and analysis used to make these decisions. The primary goal of corporate finance is to maximize corporate value while managing the firm’s financial risks. Although it is in principle different from managerial finance which studies the financial decisions of all firms, rather than corporations alone, the main concepts in the study of corporate finance are applicable to the financial problems of all kinds of firms. The discipline can be divided into long-term and short-term decisions and echniques. Capital investment decisions are long-term choices about which projects receive investment, whether to finance that investment with equity or debt, and when or whether to pay dividends to shareholders. On the other hand, the short term decisions can be grouped under the heading “Working capital management”. This subject deals with the short-term balance of current assets and current liabilities; the focus here is on managing cash, inventories, and short- term borrowing and lending (such as the terms on credit extended to customers). The terms Corporate finance and Corporate financier are also ssociated with investment banking. The typical role of an investment banker is to evaluate company’s financial needs and raise the appropriate type of capital that best fits those needs. The financing decision: Achieving the goals of corporate finance requires that any corporate investment be financed appropriately. As above, since both hurdle rate and cash flows (and hence the riskiness of the firm) will be affected, the financing mix can impact the valuation. Management must therefore identify the “optimal mix” of financing???the capital structure that results in maximum value. See Balance sheet, WACC, Fisher separation theorem; but, see also the Modigliani-Miller theorem. ) The sources of financing will, generically, comprise some combination of debt and equity. Financing a project through debt results in a liability that must be serviced???and hence there are cash flow implications regardless of the project’s success. Equity financing is less risky in the sense of cash flow commitments, but results in a dilution of ownership and earnings. The cost of equity is also typically higher than the cost of debt (see CAPM and WACC), and so equity financing may result in an ncreased hurdle rate which may offset any reduction in cash flow risk. Management must also attempt to match the financing mix to the asset being financed as closely as possible, in terms of both timing and cash flows. One of the main theories of how firms make their financing decisions is the Pecking Order Theory, which suggests that firms avoid external financing while they have internal financing available and avoid new equity financing while they can engage in new debt financing at reasonably low interest rates. Another major theory is the Trade-Off Theory in which firms are assumed to trade-off the tax benefits of debt ith the bankruptcy costs of debt when making their decisions. An emerging area in finance theory is right-financing whereby investment banks and corporations can enhance investment return and company value over time by determining the right investment objectives, policy framework, institutional structure, source of financing (debt or equity) and expenditure framework within a given economy and under given market conditions. One last theory about this decision is the Market timing hypothesis which states that firms look for the cheaper type of financing regardless of their current levels of internal resources, debt and equity.

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