Harvesting Cacao in a precipitate reaction results in less grams desired amount (2 grams) BY illicit Chemistry 1 February 3, 2014 Harvesting Cacao in a precipitate reaction results in less grams desired amount (2 grams) Abstract: The objective of this experiment was to synthesize 2. 00 grams of Cacao for a hypothetical manufacturing company using the two least detrimental (in regards to health and the environment) and least expensive chemicals possible through a precipitate reaction. A precipitate reaction happens when actions and anions of certain aqueous solutions react and combine forming a precipitate, which is an insoluble ionic solid.
In this precipitate reaction we dissolved both chosen chemicals (powder Calcium Chloride dehydrate and powder Sodium Carbonate) in distilled water and then mixed them together in a single beaker. Finally we filtered this mixture and let all the water evaporate leaving behind solely the precipitate. In order to determine the amounts needed of each reactant we had to use psychometric. First we had to set up a balanced equation of the precipitate reaction that yielded 2. 00 grams of Cacao, then we looked at the ratio of moles reactant to moles product.
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We hen substituted the ratio of the molar mass of each reactant to molar mass of the product in for each mole. We divided this to find out how many grams of reactant for every one gram of product, and finally multiplied this by two. Our final results were lower than the desired 2. 00 grams. Balanced Equation: acacia X OH + Niacin x H2O -+ cacao + enact + OH Background Information: We chose Calcium Chloride dehydrate because it is soluble in water, not very expensive and only mildly toxic (OLDS MGM/keg). In addition we chose Sodium Carbonate because it is soluble in water, inexpensive and only less toxic (OLDS MGM/keg).
Our Product (Cacao) is slightly soluble in water; in acids with evolution of carbon dioxide, it is a white color and has no odor with a toxicity of OLDS MGM/keg. Calculations: 1 mol acacia X OH/ 1 mol cacao X 147. 01056 g acacia X OH/ 100. Egg cacao 1. Egg = 2. Egg acacia X OH 1 mol Niacin x H2O/1 mol cacaos X 124. 00378 g Niacin x H2O’ 100. Egg cacao = 1. Egg X 2 = 2. 48 g Niacin x H2O Name Formula Properties/ price/ toxicity Calcium Sulfate (dehydrate) cases; OH Soluble: Slightly in water. Color: Off-white Odor: None non-toxic Calcium chloride dehydrate Chihuahua $8. 05/egg Soluble: Water and alcohol.
Color: White Slightly toxic (OLDS MGM/keg) Calcium acetate moderate ca(C2H302VH20 $6. 05″ go Soluble: Water; slightly in alcohol. Odor: Slight vinegar. Calcium nitrate dehydrate $8. 70″ go Soluble: Water, alcohol, and acetone. Color: Colorless Slightly toxic (OLDS 3900 MGM/keg) Sodium carbonate Niacin $9. 95/egg Soluble: Water, glycerin; not alcohol. Skin irritant (OLDS MGM/keg) Potassium carbonate CHECK $13. 25/egg Soluble: Water; not alcohol. Non-toxic Lithium carbonate Illicit $18. 95/egg Soluble: Slightly in water; insoluble in alcohol; soluble in dilute acid. Color: White Moderately toxic (OLDS MGM/keg)
Magnesium carbonate Magic $10. 45/egg Soluble: Acids; slightly in water; insoluble in alcohol. Procedure: 1 . Weigh two beakers 2. Weigh the two reactants separately in weigh boats 3. Measure out enough water to dissolve each reactant 4. Pour water into beaker w/ one reactant (each beaker has already been weighed) 5. Pour water into beaker w/ other reactant 6. Mix the two aqueous solutions together create Calcium Carbonate (stir thoroughly to make sure everything is reacted before moving on to next step) 7. Weigh filter paper 8. Place the filter paper into a funnel over the mouth of a beaker 9.
Pour solution into eager until completely filtered (filter as many times needed) 10. Let filter paper w/ Calcium Carbonate dry on a watch glass // let the water evaporate so that weight of the product isn’t affected by the weight of the water 11. Weigh filter paper and watch glass w/ product after fully dry 12. Subtract weight of filter paper and watch glass Materials: -3 beakers -2. Grams of Calcium Chloride dehydrate – 2. Egg of Sodium Carbonate -Scale – Graduated cylinders -Distilled water -Glass stir -2 Filter paper(s) -Funnel -Watch glass -2 weigh boats Item watch glasses #1 78. Egg I | #2130. 04 Quantity Calcium Chloride dehydrate 2. G Sodium Carbonate Water 25 ml for each chemical Filter Paper . Egg Watch glass #1 79. Egg #2 78. Egg Other: -Both Powders were white and resembled powdered sugar (one looked slightly like miniscule balls and the other seemed like a finer flaky powder) -At one point one of our powdered chemicals looked as though it had absorbed water after being left in a drawer for a few days. -While pouring the aqueous solution containing both chemical reactants into the filter papered funnel, a lot of the solution spilled. This meant that we lost any precipitate that the spilled solution contained (leading to a lower mass of product).
We have no percent yield because we forgot to write down the final mass of our yielded Cacao precipitate. Discussion and Conclusion: In this scenario a company wants us to yield 2. 00 grams of the antacid Cacao using two low cost, minimally toxic chemicals via precipitate reaction. Our strategy to create 2. 00 grams of Cacao was we chose two reactants and calculated exactly how much of each reactant we would need to yield 2. 00 grams using psychometric (see psychometric in abstract and calculations in background info). Later we dissolved the reactants in water and then mixed those solutions together.
We then filtered this final reacted solution to separate out the precipitate from the solution and left this precipitate to dry (so that the water would evaporate). Although we do not have a definite numerical result, both Tenant and I remember a resulting mass that was significantly lower than the desired 2. 00 grams. This was most likely due to a number of errors. Our most considerable error being that we spilled a great deal of our reacted solution before filtering it. This means that we lost any precipitate in the spilled solution thus bringing down the mass of our final product.
Another possible error is that I made sure to measure exact amounts of reactants but did not account for the possibility that we may have had some reactant blow away or spill, again decreasing the mass of the product. Lastly, when transferring our reactants from the weigh boat into a beaker, some of the powdered reactant may have stayed stuck to the walls of the boat. This would mean that the masses of the reactants were decreased, and thusly the mass of the product. If our team were to repeat this experiment, we would measure out slightly more than the exact amount of reactant o account for any loss of substance that is bound to occur.
We could also pour water into the weigh boat before transferring it into the beaker, so that no powder would be left behind (this is acceptable because the next step in the experiment is to dissolve the reactant in water). In addition, we would be more carefully to avoid spills; we could do this by positioning a funnel over the mouth of the beaker before down the mass of our final product in the future. This lab helped my team cultivate the skills of both teamwork and precision. The weighing in this lab was more precise than we have done previously.
In addition we applied the skill of psychometric by using it to determine the amounts of a given reactant that were required for a desired outcome prior to the actual reaction. The skills used in this lab could be employed by pharmaceutical industries to create certain amounts of chemicals. They could use the precision and psychometric to get exact measurements of reactants before performing any procedures. One question I had is: how can a scientist or a consumer tell how pure a substance is? What procedural steps would someone have to take to find this out about our own final product?
Reflection, acknowledgements, fleeting: http://www. Flinch. Com I had assistance with the lab from my partner Tenant and Lauren edited my lab report We worked together well on the Google doc, each doing our part on separate parts. We also worked together well in the lab by assisting each other when one took charge, we managed things in a step up and step back way. This meant that one person would be doing the measuring or pouring while the other would get the necessary materials, or write down measurements. Finally, I think that we could work on pointing blame and forgiveness because errors are inevitable during labs.