Discussion: The objective of this experiment was to perform an electroscopic aromatic substitution reaction, predict the effect on substituted orientation, and determine the identity of the product and mechanism for product. The limiting reagent in this reaction was metallization because it was starting material used in electroscopic aromatic substitution reaction (0. 016 moles). There were 10. 8 moles of HOSTS and 2. 4 moles HON. used in this experiment. The mass of the product obtained from this experiment was 0. Egg.
Experimental melting point of the product was 72. 6-75. ICC. A percent yield of 4. 1% was obtained for this experiment. The major product obtained from this experiment was methyl-3-international. The structure of the compound is shown below: The major product obtained from this experiment was methyl-3-international. This was the major product because the ester substituted is meta directing (electron withdrawing group), NON is a deactivating group (causing it to be meta directed, and the experimental melting point was closest to literature melting point of this molecule.
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Also, statically because the ester group is an electron withdrawer, if NON were at the Roth position it would destabilize the positive charge and deactivate the OTOH, Para addition. Popularization is not favored in this experimental procedure cause the reaction was done at a low temperature. If the reaction were not done in an ice bath, popularization could have been a possible side reaction. Also, because the monounsaturated product is less reactive than the original reactant, selective institutional occurs.
The nitric acid/sulfuric acid solution was added slowly to methyl abnegate to ensure a monitored product would be formed. If it were added too quickly, the formation of a denigrated product would have been encouraged. Higher temperatures are necessary for denigration because after the first tort group is added, it deactivates the aromatic nucleus to further substitution, thus raising the activation energy required to add the second intro group.
The most likely denigrated product is shown below: In order to produce a denigrated product, the number of moles of the acids would mixture would need to be heated. More acids (nitric specifically) would increase the amount of nutrition ion available for addition. Increased temperature would favor a denigrated product as mention previously. Nitric and sulfuric acids hydrology the ester on methyl abnegate to form a by-product, intervention acid. To remove this by- reduce, react intervention acid with methanol in a basic environment to form methyl m-international.
Sources of error and differences in percent yields include: adding acid too fast (causing formation of by-products), losing product in filtrate flask, filter paper, or funnel. These errors would result in lower percent yields. Conclusion: reaction was metallization. The mass of the product obtained from this experiment was 0. Egg. Experimental melting point of the product was 72. 6-75. ICC. A percent yield of 4. 1% was obtained for this experiment. The major product obtained from this experiment was methyl-3-international.