Why is a well balance training diet essential for an athlete? A well balance training diet Is essential for an athlete. Good diet and nutrition can enhance sporting performance. Carbohydrates should form the basis of the sportsperson diet. For most athletes, a varied healthy diet will provide vitamins and minerals, as well as protein, to promote growth and repair of muscle tissues. Adequate fluid intake is essential to help performance and prevent dehydration. 55.
What are the relative recommended percentage of CHOC, Fats and Protein for a. Athletes b. ) Non-athletes 56. What are the pre-performance recommendations for an athlete? A pre- performance routine Is a consistent procedure that athletes use to prepare themselves for competition. It is recommended that athletes must time their carbohydrate intake, a substantial amount of carbohydrate (200-egg) in the 2-4 hours prior the event. The carbohydrate foods most suited to pre-exercise eating are low-fat, low-fiber and low to moderate in protein; these are less likely to cause gastrointestinal upset.
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Liquid meal supplements (such as a protein shake) or reverberate-containing sports bars (such as Powerboat Performance Bar) can be useful for athletes who suffer from pre-event nerves or have an unpredictable pre- event timetable 57. What is a carbohydrate loading? Explain the process. Carbohydrate loading Is a strategy Involving changes to training and nutrition that can maximize muscle glycogen (carbohydrate) stores prior to endurance competition. This diet typically involves a 3-4 day ‘depletion phase’ involving 3-4 days of hard training plus a low carbohydrate diet.
This depletion phase was thought to be necessary to stimulate the enzyme glycogen synthesize. This was then followed immediately by a 3-4 day ‘loading phase’ involving rest combined with a high carbohydrate diet. The combination of the two phases was shown to boost muscle carbohydrate stores beyond their usual resting levels. 58. Why is it though beneficial? To what types of athletes? The extra supply of carbohydrate has been demonstrated to improve endurance exercise by allowing athletes to exercise at their optimal pace for a longer time.
It is estimated that carbohydrate loading can improve performance over a set distance by 2-3%. An individual who exercises continuously at a moderate o high Intensity for 90 minutes or longer Is likely to benefit from carbohydrate loading. Typically, sports such as cycling, marathon running, longer distance triathlon, cross-country skiing and endurance swimming benefit from carbohydrate loading. 59. What is recommended for an athlete to eat/drink during competition? It is recommended that a sport drink containing 30 grams of carbohydrate and 1 5 grams of protein (In 500 ml water) per hour of exercise could be taken.
With multiple events back to back, a larger amount of this beverage should be consumed 1 org recommended for an athlete to eat/drink after competition? Post-workout nutrition squires two things: protein to aid in protein synthesis and carbohydrates to replace muscle glycogen. Egg. Chicken breast (protein) with broccoli and brown rice (carbohydrates) 61 . What is meant by the term supplementation? The word “supplement” means exactly that: a nutrient or group of nutrients (vitamins, minerals, protein, carbohydrates, fats and oils) that are meant to supplement, but not substitute for a healthy diet that you eat on a regular basis.
Nutrition supplements come in a variety of forms: pills, capsules, powders, liquids, and even in gel form. The cost of nutrition supplements can range from almost “at cost” to being outrageously expensive. 62. Are there any benefits of supplementation of vitamins, minerals, and protein to performance? The body is unable to manufacture vitamins, so diet must supply them as vitamins are essential to maintain bodily functions. Protein is responsible for the growth, repair and maintenance of body tissue the use of protein supplements is common amongst power and strength athletes such as weight-lifters, rugby league and rugby union players. 3. Are there benefits from the use of sports drinks; liquid meal supplements, calcium supplements; iron supplements? Why? The benefits of sports drinks are; Convenient, easy to consume 64. What evidence is there for against vitamins/minerals supplementation? Loss of time, effort and money. Overdoses of the fat-soluble kind are the real culprits. The results of overdoses are many. For example, an overdose of vitamin A could cause ringing in the ears, blurred vision, hair loss and a host of other effects. Excessive quantities of some vitamins and minerals can be unnecessary, expensive and potentially dangerous. 5. What evidence is there for against creating supplementation? Creating is possibly unsafe when taken with a high dosage. There is some concern that it could harm the kidney and the liver, or heart function. Creating also causes muscles to draw water from the rest of the body and could cause dehydration. 66. What evidence is there for against caffeine supplementation? Caffeine can cause insomnia, nervousness and restlessness, stomach irritation, nausea and vomiting, increased heart rate and respiration, and other side effects.
Caffeine can make sleep disorders in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) worse. Larger doses might cause headache, anxiety, agitation, chest pain, and ringing in the ears. Large goes may be unsafe and can cause irregular heartbeats and even death. 67. Explain physiological strategies for recovery strategies? Egg. Cool down and hydration. Physiological recovery strategies aim to remove the metabolic by-products of exercise through a cool down period as well as replace lost fluids and energy.
Cool down: The cool down, or active recovery, is a group of lower intensity exercises performed immediately after exercise to remove waste products, decrease muscle soreness (DOOMS), improve muscular relaxation, bring the cardiovascular system back to rest and allow time to reflect on the training or performance. This could involve short Jogging repetitions, slow swimming or similar low intensity activity. Static reduce the risk of injury. Hydration: To replenish fluid lost during training or games the athlete should consume approximately one litter of water for every kilogram of body weight lost.
The addition of carbohydrates will speed up fluid replacement as well as refueling muscle glycogen stores. The foods eaten in the 30 minutes immediately after exercise should be medium to high glycerin. Sports drinks are useful because they provide fuel and fluid but should be limited to the 30 minute period following exercise. Solid foods, such as fruit, should be encouraged as they provide additional nutritional value. 68. Explain the neural recovery strategies for recovery egg. Hydrotherapy, massage. Neural recovery strategies such as hydrotherapy and massage help replenish the nervous system.
The change in chemicals found in muscles following heavy bouts of exercise or psychological stress can be addressed by these neural strategies. Hydrotherapy: Hydrotherapy involves the use of water to relax, soothe pain and assist metabolic recovery whilst providing support for movements which eliminate Jarring and straining movements. Typical hydrotherapy methods include spas, underwater massage and swimming pools (heated and non-heated). Active exercise can be incorporated into hydrotherapy sessions allowing a gravity assisted environment.
Massage: The main purpose of massage is to assist in reducing training fatigue. It can also be helpful in a preventative way in reducing localized muscle tension that can with time lead to overuse injury. 69. Explain the tissue damage recovery strategies egg. Cryptography Cryptography: Cryptography, or cold therapy, is the local or general use of low temperatures to remove heat from a body part. The goal of cryptography is to decrease pain and inflammation, promote vasoconstriction and prevent the build up of waste products.
Various forms of cryptography have become popular as recovery strategies for many athletes. Examples of various forms are cryptography are ice packs and a Cryogenic chamber. 70. Explain the psychological recovery strategies, egg. Relaxation. Psychological recovery strategies aim to disengage the athlete from the performance. Heart rate, breathing and body temperature remain elevated post exercise and may take time to drop as do anxiety levels about the performance or true performances. Strategies such as relaxation assist to bring these levels to normal levels.
Following intense training and demanding performances, athletes may experience symptoms of low concentration, lack of motivation and increased levels of anxiety. Psychological strategies can play an important part in emotional and possibly spiritual recovery by assisting in recovery of concentration, lifting motivation and decreasing anxiety levels. Some psychological strategies that can be used to enhance recovery are outlined below. Debriefing – Effectively evaluating a performance can be useful way to provide emotional and psychological support after training or competition. This should focus on the process not the outcome.
Debriefing allows the athlete to achieve ‘closure’ with regards to a past performance and set goals for future performances. This is usually logical, rational discussion removed from the hype and the emotion of performance. Contingency planning – Simple strategies or distracted, such as mood-lifting activities, which are used in situations such as a major performance setback or traumatic event. Social support -Athletes need to build up a network of support contacts outside their athletic lives. Relaxation skills – These relax in many different ways, with some preferring to read a book, listen to music or watch television.
Specialized relaxation techniques are also widely used, including meditation, progressive muscle relaxation, visualization, breathing exercises, positive self-talk and flotation. The athlete needs to practice only one or two techniques on a regular basis for these to become effective tools to use to aid recovery. The choice of relaxation methods is quite individual and involves experimentation to establish which technique works best. Rest and sleep – Rest days are essential and a least one ay per week should be a non-training day.
This allows time for physical and psychological recovery as well as time for other interests and activities. Adequate sleep (7-9 hours) is regarded as probably the most important recovery strategy as it provides regeneration and restoration of the body’s systems to allow adaptation to training. Too much sleep however, can be detrimental, contributing to sluggishness and lethargy. How does the acquisition of skill affect performance? 71 . What is meant by the term ‘skill acquisition? Skill acquisition refers to the process that athletes use to learn or acquire a new skill.
A skill can be defined as an act or task such as typing or drawing, or in the instance of sport, catching, throwing, and running. 72. What is meant by cognitive stage? The cognitive stage of skill acquisition is the early identification and understanding of the skill to be learned. Individuals focus on what to do, that is most of the learning activities during this stage will be in the mind, egg. Watching, thinking, analyzing, reasoning, Judging and visualizing, rather than lots of practice. During this stage the learner develops an in-depth understanding of the skill to be acquired. 73. What is meant by associative stage?
The associative stage of skill acquisition really focuses on the idea of practice with the learner learning how to do it. Practice at this stage increases the learner’s ability to perform the skill or task. They may not necessarily perform the skill well but have an understanding of how to do it. Most learners stay in this stage for a long period of time, with most not progressing to the next stage. 74. What is meant by the autonomous stage? The autonomous stage of skill acquisition revolves around executing a skill automatically without having to stop and think about what to do next or how to o it.
It is an advanced level of performance where the individual can perform the skill fluently and instinctively and where outside influences do not affect the outcome. It may take individuals a long time to achieve this stage with many never reaching it. This may be due to the training demands, the complexity of the task or a lack of motivation. 75. Provide an example of how someone would progress through the stages of skill acquisition. An example of an individual progressing from the stages of skill acquisition would able to perform a certain skill without failure and loud have a skill as a second nature. 6. Describe the characteristics of a learner (personality, heredity, confidence, prior experience, ability) The learner brings many influence the capacity of the learner to acquire skills. Personality, heredity, confidence, prior experience, and ability particularly influence the direction of the learning experience. These characteristics influence the speed with which that person may acquire a skill. Personality: Refers to an individual’s characteristic way of behaving and develops as a result of infinite social interactions and learning experiences throughout life.
From a motor learning point of view, certain aspects of personality tend to be favorable with certain learning environments for example elite coaches tend to select athletes not only with superior physical talent but also those who possess positive learning attributes such as determination, enthusiasm and dedication. Learners whose personality reflects positive ways of behaving are more receptive to instruction and advice, more cooperative in performing set tasks and more helpful in creating a productive learning environment.
If they possess patience, a willingness to try new things, listen to advice and can co-operate with OTOH other team members and the coach, they are more likely to have a positive outcome from a skill learning experience. If however an individual loses patience easily, cannot accept advice or cannot share experiences with others they will be slower in developing their skills. Heredity: Refers to the genetic characteristics inherited from our parents. These are unchangeable and limit the dimensions of our potential. The environment determines if we can reach the limits set by heredity.
Specific hereditary characteristics influence the potential for success in specific ports/skills. Confidence: As an individual begins to learn skills and experiences success, they begin to develop a sense of self-belief in their ability to perform. Some level of confidence is internally generated, based on how the learner sees themselves (related to their personality). This confidence will then pass into the next level of learning. By learning and performing skills from a simple to a complex level, confidence will rise as the individual is more likely to experience success as they develop their skills.
If however, they are given complex tasks early in their placement and they experience frequent failure, confidence is more likely to fall, which may slow down improvements in the individual’s skill level. Prior Experience: If an individual has participated in an activity which involves similar qualities, such the hand/eye co-ordination found in hockey, they may be able to learn the skills involved in other sports such as cricket or golf more effectively. It can also be seen between sports such as basketball and netball, and gymnastics and diving.
Ability: Ability is the ease with which an individual is able to perform a movement or routine. We often all these individual’s gifted or talented as they often show ease and precision when executing a skill. Ability can also be seen in the way in which an individual is able to learn process and implement new skills. Ability incorporates a range of factors, such as sense of acuity, perception, reaction time and intelligence, which combine to allow the individual to do readily what is intended. 77. How can the physical environment affect the skill acquisition?
The physical learning environment can have a positive and negative impact on the learning process and is a major factor in the development of skills. The learning environment refers to everything outside the learner, including the weather, the skill itself, the situation it is practiced in, and information from coaches. 78. How can the nature of the skill affect skill acquisition? Stability of the environment (open or closed skills) the precision of the movement (gross or fine skills) the distinctiveness of the beginning and end points (discrete, serial or continuous skills) Timing (externally paced or self-paced skills). 9. What is an open skill? Close skill? Gross Motor skill? Fine motor skill? Extremely paced? Internally paced? Continuous skill? Discrete Skill? Serial skill? Examples? Open Skill: occurs in an unpredictable and frequently changing environment (weather, field, opponents) where the timing and the placement of the performance are dependent upon factors outside the control of the performer. Performance of the skill is greatly influenced by external factors and as such most open skills are externally paced. The unpredictability of the environment forces the performer to respond in a variety of ways.
Close Skill: occurs in a stable and predictable environment, where the timing of the skill is self-paced and to a large extent, the reformer determines the place where the skill will be performed. Gross Motor skill: involve the use of large muscle groups (arms and legs) and include such things as walking, Jumping, running and kicking. Fine Motor skill: involve smaller muscle groups and fine movements, such as catching a tennis ball, playing darts and positioning the hand and fingers during a dance performance. Extremely Paced: where the factors external to the performer set the time of execution of the movement.
Rhythmic performances such as gymnastics, dancing, and aerobics, are externally paced as the movements must be performed in time with the music. Internally Paced: where the performer determines the time and pace of execution. Examples include serving in tennis and a corner kick in soccer. Continuous skill: A continuous skill is one that has no real beginning or end but is maintained in a repetitive fashion. The starting and finishing point of these skills are determined by the performer, not by the skill itself. This includes the leg action when running, cycling or swimming.
Discrete skill: A discrete movement skill has a clearly defined beginning and end. It may include a throw or kick or a forward roll in gymnastics. Serial skill: this skill requires a number of separate skills to be performed in a specific order to achieve the set movement required. Activities such as bowling in cricket where a run up, a delivery phase and the follow through need to be combined for effective performance. 80. How are the relevant performance element incorporated into practice? For effective performance in game or competition, athletes need to be able to perform movements under pressure.
Performance elements such as tactics, strategies and team plans need to be part of skill practice to enable optimal performance. Egg. Decision making & strategic and tactical development Decision making: Athletes need to make many decisions that will influence the quality of the performance. These include decisions such as who to pass to, whether to shoot for goal or pass, or decisions to accelerate in a cycling or distance running event. Coaches need to provide opportunities for decision making in practice so the athlete can improve their skills resulting in clear decisions when performing.
Strategic and tactical development: Some sports have a high strategic and tactical component. In tactical sports such as basketball, touch football or cricket, the learning environment just reflect the game situations to develop players understanding of how to with game play are can be similar across some sports, such as moving into space or marking a player. Athletes can develop an awareness of the tactics required and apply these skills in a variety of game situations. Tactical development requires practice of pressure situations similar to a game, rather than stationary practice or drills.
As tactical development improves, game like practices can become more complex allowing for development of decision making and problem solving. 81 . What are the 4 types of practice methods used to learn skills? The 4 types of practice methods used to learn skills are massed, distributed, whole and part. 82. Describe each, giving examples. When would each be best used – for what types of skill and/ or types of learner? Massed: Massed practice occurs when one skill is continuously practiced in a session with only brief rest periods or none at all.
This may involve a variety of drills aimed at improving the one skill performed one after the other. Distributed: Distributed practice can follow one of two forms. One form is when a range of skills, for example soccer dribbling, passing, and shooting. The other is where one skill is practiced, either through a single drill or a variety of skill drills, and broken up by moderate rest periods. Whole : refers to practicing a skill in its entirety, such as a softball pitch, whereas the part method involves a skill being broken into smaller components and each subsoil practiced separately, such as a basketball lay-up.
Part: involves learning a part before adding another related part. Many coaches use a combination of methods, where the whole skill is taught, and then if difficulties arise, the skill is broken down and taught as the part method. Regardless of the way it is initially learnt and practiced it eventually needs to be put into a whole skill practice and performance or the co-ordination of the parts cannot occur effectively. 83. How do instructions vary according to the characteristics of the learner? 84. What is feedback?
Feedback is the process of providing a performer with information about the nature or result of their performance. The performer will receive information from internal and external sources which may be concurrent or delayed. 85. The sources of feedback are internal and external. Explain these. Feedback can come from internal ND external sources; it may be given at different times such as concurrent or delayed; and it may provide different information such as knowledge of performance and knowledge of results. Internal feedback information received from the senses as a result of movement or self-talk.
This helps athletes develop a kinesthesia sense or feel for a movement which allows them to distinguish between a skilled or less skilled performance. For example, when passing a netball, the athlete feels the ball in their hands and is aware of the ball leaving the hand as they can see, feel and hear it moving through the air and being caught by another player. External feedback is information received from external sources (outside the body) such as the crowd or the environment. 86. The types of feedback are knowledge of results (KERR) and knowledge of performance (KIP). Explain each and give examples.
Knowledge of results (KERR): suggests how successful the skill was performed, and comes from an external source. This could include a coach discussing the outcome of a performance with the athlete, an athlete seeing the ball drop into the basket from a Jump shot, or from score boards. If the skill execution is successful the athlete is aware of the need o repeat the performance. If results are not favorable, a change must be made to improve performance. Knowledge of performance (KIP): information received about how well a skill was performed. It may be internal or external.
For example a diver may gain information from an external source such as video replay about the position of her body during a movement or a basketball may put up shot and feels the execution is incorrect resulting in the shot being missed. 87. The timing of feedback can be concurrent or delayed. Explain each with examples. Concurrent feedback: information received during a performance. This is most often internal feedback but can also be from external sources. This feedback allows for immediate correction of body position to improve results during the performance of a skill.
For example, during a tennis serve, the server recognizes that their ball toss is off direction. This concurrent feedback allows the player to stop the serve and improve the toss, rather than continuing the serve and being forced into error. Delayed Feedback: information provided to the athlete after the skill has been performed, and is therefore received too late to produce a response at the time. An example of allayed feedback is a comment from the coach at the end of the activity, at half time or from video analysis after the game.
This information allows for changes to technique in future performances. 88. How is feedback used as learner’s progress through the stages of skill acquisition? Feedback is an essential component in the successful acquisition and development of skills, regardless of the stage of acquisition or age of the learner. Feedback provides information about the performance that allows the learner to adjust and improve or continue efficient performance. 89. What are the characteristics of a skilled performer? List and briefly explain what they mean?
A skilled performer demonstrates characteristics and abilities which allows them to perform consistently at a very high level. Kinesthesia sense: Kinesthesia refers to the sensory information received from the body about their body position and awareness of limbs during a movement. A skilled athlete’s neuromuscular pathways are trained to ‘feel’ the movement resulting in better coordination and greater ability to make corrections and modifications while executing the movement. Anticipation: A skilled performer is capable of predicting hat might happen next, by reading cues, and choosing the appropriate response to the action.
This gives skilled athletes an advantage over other performers as they can position themselves in preparation for the next phase of play to counteract an opponent’s move. Anticipation is particularly important in externally paced activities or where fast movement and decision making is required. For example, by watching the ball from the bowler’s hand, a skilled cricket batsman can anticipate the bounce shot. Consistency: Skilled performers demonstrate greater consistency resulting in fewer errors during a performance. An unskilled athlete may occasionally ‘fluke’ a good performance whereas a skilled athlete can perform well over and over.
Skilled performers have progressed to the autonomous stage of skill acquisition, resulting in an automatic performance of skill. Unskilled athletes make gross errors frequently and rely on external feedback to correct these errors for future performances. Skilled performers use internal feedback and knowledge of performance. Thus they correct small errors during performance to demonstrate greater consistency and efficiency. Technique: Skilled athletes tend to maintain correct technique despite fatigue or the name situation. They have developed their skills to be fluent, smooth and well performed.
The movement is more economical, will not use as much energy, and is phonemically correct and therefore less likely to cause injury. Mental Approach: Mental approach is the ability of an athlete to control their mind as they work towards a movement goal. Skilled athletes are able to achieve this through goal setting, visualization, concentration and focus. They are often more competitive, ambitious, confident and committed than unskilled athletes. They are more capable f controlling anxiety and arousal resulting in optimal performance and reduced errors.
They are able to perform skills as part of complex movement pattern and strategic play while making complex decisions. The mental discipline of an athlete becomes increasingly important as they move towards the elite level in their sport. 90. How do we recognize a skilled performer? A skilled performer is often stronger, more flexible, better coordinated, balanced and fitter than unskilled performers. They are able to perceive, decide and act in a manner that is efficient in terms of both energy and time. 92. What is subjective appraisal? Examples?