Evolution of Computers Assignment

Evolution of Computers Assignment Words: 1860

Each generation follows a common thread in computer design and functionality – decreased size and increased speed. The evolution of computers is greatly influenced by the innovations and development In field of electronics. New technology In the field of electronics are assimilated and adopted In the design and development of computers. Each generation of computer Is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting In Increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices. General Characteristics

The first generation of computers dated from the late sass’s until 1958. The main component used in these computers are vacuum tubes which contributed to these computers big and bulky size. Vacuum tubes produced excessive heat and frequently burnout with use. They are programmed directly with machine language (binary) and used magnetic core memory. Data input and storage in these computers are done with the use of punch cards and tapes. Other characteristic of 1st Generation Computers are as follows: Big, bulky and clumsy design Consumed excessive space; usually consumes an entire room

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High energy consumption Electric failure occurred regularly which made computers not very reliable Large ventilation system or air conditioning was necessary for excessive heat Task are done with Batch Processing Important Developments 1951, UNIVAC Stands for Universal Automatic Computer Developed by Cocker and Macaulay First commercial computer in the USA First computer built for business Used Short Code – set of instructions used by UNIVAC Programmers 1951 , SAGE Stands for Semi-Automatic Ground Environment Developed by IBM Used for US air defense system Heavy and occupied an acre of floor space

First large computer network to provide man-machine interaction in real-time 1952, ADVANCE Stands for Electronic Discreet Variable Computer Developed by John Von Neumann Used to solve logical and mathematical problem Used a Central Control Unit which performs all calculations Used a read and write memory which stores both data and program Advances architecture used as a basis for other computer design 1953, The Whirlwind Developed in Servomechanisms Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1946 A large scale general purpose computer Became the basis for the improvement of Vim’s SAGE Computer. D Generation The second generation of computers dated from the late 1959 – 1964. Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late ass. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the scum tube.

Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output. Second-generation computers moved from binary machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. High-level programming languages were also being developed at this time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN. Other characteristic of 2nd Generation Computers are as follows: Computers became smaller Generates less heat Lowered energy consumption Core memory developed Computers became faster and more reliable

Magnetic tapes and disk were used First operating system was developed The concept of time-sharing processing was noted 1963, Mint-computer: PDP-8 Developed by Digital First successful mint-computer As large as a common fridge and used transistors magnetic core memory 1964, SABER Stands for Semi-Automatic Business-Related Environment Used for real-time computerized ticket reservation system of American Airways Smaller than Vim’s earlier computer – SAGE 1964, system,’360 Commonly known as Vim’s System 360 Consisted of 6 processors and 40 peripheral units 1964, BASIC (Programming Language)

Used in time-sharing programming Was considered as the training language at that time 3rd Generation The third generation of computers dated from the late 1965 – 1970. The third generation is characterized by the development of the integrated circuit – a complete electrical circuit whose components (transistors, capacitors, etc. ) are fabricated onto a small “chip” made of silicon. It is commonly referred as an integrated circuit chip, or ICC chip. ICC chips drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.

Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation amputees through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Although still large by today’s standards, third-generation computers were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors, and were now being mass-produced (primarily by MOM) for commercial use around the world.

Other characteristic of 3rd Generation Computers are as follows: Computers became smaller and faster Computers became more accurate and reliable High-level programming language appeared 965, Moor’s Law Developed by Gordon Moore – founder of Intel States that the number of transistors that occurred in a microchip would double every year Moor’s Law is applicable even today 1965, 82500 & 83500 Developed by Burroughs First few computers that used integrated circuits 1965, CDC 7600 & century senses Developed by Control Data and NCR respectively First Computers that were made using only integrated circuits 1968, Intel was founded Intel stands for Integrated Electronics An electronics company that developed more sophisticated memory chip and processors 1968, Magnetic core memory was replaced Microchips replaced Magnetic core memory 256 bit RAM microchips and 1 KGB RAM (1024 byte) caused the disappearance of Magnetic core memory which was used since the early sass 1969, IBM System/370 Replaced IBM System/360 First IBM computer machine that used only integrated circuits 4th Generation The fourth generation of computers dated from the late 1971 – 1991.

The fourth generation is distinguished primarily as the generation in which the personal microprocessor by Intel Corp.. A microprocessor is a single ICC chip that contains an entire computer processor – essentially, an entire first-generation computer that can it in the palm of your hand. The second breakthrough was a series of improvements in ICC design and manufacturing methods which allowed engineers to create ICC chips with tens of thousands of transistors, a process now known as large scale integration (LSI). This allowed more complex systems to be produced using smaller circuit boards, and at a reduced cost. Solid-state electronics began to make their way into everyday life – home appliances, radios, TV’s, games, and more.

In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Fourth generation computers also saw the development of Guise, the mouse and handheld devices. Other characteristic of 4th Generation Computers are as follows: Integrated Circuits became smaller and faster Microcomputer series such as IBM and Apple developed Portable computers developed Great development in data communication Secondary memory with high storage capacity developed Peripheral devices were developed

Improvements in High-level computer languages aroused Operating systems and GUI improved Computer applications such as word processing and games were developed Computers were integrated to everyday appliances 1971 , 4004 Microprocessor Developed by Intel First microprocessor – a CPU in a microchip Consisted of 2250 transistors Processed 4 bits of data at a rate of 60000 transactions/second 1971, Pascal (Programming Language) Developed by Nikolas Worth a Swedish Computer Scientist Designed to teach the concepts of structured programming Most popular language for learning principles of good programming 1972, 8008 Microprocessor An 8-bit processor Powerful enough to be used as a CPU in a minicomputer 1972, CPA/M (operating system) Developed by Gary Killed and John Torero First Operating System for microcomputers Torero developed a hardware that connects a diskette (floppy disk) to the CPU 1974, 8080 Microprocessor It made the development of microcomputers possible 1974, MARK – 8 Developed by Jonathan Titus – a chemist with an interest in electronics Ordered an Intel 8080 and built a computer with six circuit boards which had 256 bytes of RAM 1974, 6800 processor Developed by Motorola

Performed all the functions of Intel’s 8080 1975, Altair 8800 Developed by MITTS (Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems) Popular Mechanics (a Tech Magazine) coined it as a true personal computer Used an Intel 8080 microprocessor and was made available in a complete kit, including all components and assemble instructions 256 bytes of RAM was made available with 16 more slots opened to include additional RAM if necessary 1975, Apple was founded Founded by Steve Woozier and Steve Jobs Built a microcomputer motherboard that used an 8-bit processor The motherboard as a single circuit board and held 4 KGB RAM 1976, MOSS 6502 processor Developed by MOSS Technologies An 8-bit processor with very few registers and 16-bit address bus Used in the design of Apple II 1977, Apple II Developed by Apple Company A cheap computer with 16 KGB RAM and was ideal for playing video games It was sold with a keyboard, a power supply and 8 slots for peripherals 1978, 8086 Processor Contained 16-bit registers and used segmented memory addressing 1979, 68000 processor Used in Apple’s Lisa and Macintosh Computers 1979, 68000 processor 1979, Fiscal (Spreadsheet Application) Developed by Dan Bricklike and Bob Frankfort Developed at Software Arts Company First spreadsheet program used for microcomputers.

Distributed and used for all Apple Computers 1979, Words (Word Processing Application) Developed by Seymour Rubberiest Developed at Micro Became the best seller in CPA/M operating environment 1981, PCMCIA Vim’s first personal computer Ran on an Intel 8088 processor Known as Intel’s 80286 Used in Vim’s PC AT (Advance Technology) 1983, Lisa Developed by Apple A computer that used a mouse to move a cursor on the screen in order to select nomads First commercial computer to use a GUI (Graphical User Interface) 1983, PC EXT (extended Technology) Memory Capacity was expanded to KBPS Featured 4. 77 Mesh Processor Speed Double Floppy Disk used MS DOS version 3. 3 1990, Windows 3. 0 (Operating System) Developed by Microsoft Microsoft’s commercial Operating System 5th Generation The fifth generation of computers dated from the late 1992 – Present. In the computing world, there is no real consensus on the timeline (or even the existence of) a fifth generation of computers. It can be argued that while microprocessors have come more powerful, and integrated circuits have become smaller, the underlying technology has not really changed since the fourth generation.

If we wish to recognize a “fifth generation” at all, then perhaps it reflects a shift in computer use, rather than computer technology. The emergence of the Internet, and particular, the World Wide Web has forever changed the way computers are used in society. Artificial intelligence – a field of study that predates the first generation – is now a reality, with devices that are capable of learning, self-organization, and natural engage input. If a “true” fifth generation (based on technology only) emerges, it will probably be based upon quantum computation, molecular / nanotechnology, or some other innovation that will enhance (or replace) the integrated circuit, and once again radically change the face of computers.

Some technological developments that could make the development of fifth-generation computers possible, include: Parallel-processing – many processors are grouped to function as one large group processor. Superconductors – a superconductor is a conductor through which electricity can travel without any resistance resulting in faster transfer of information between the components of a computer.

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