CEO-systems Environment It is everything that surrounds you. It includes all natural living and non-living things that are included within the environment. All living organisms depend on the natural environment they live in. A natural environment is very different to a man made environment because a man made environment is heavily influenced by people whereas a natural environment is effected by people by a very small amount. Ecosystems An area containing living organisms which is effected by non-living thing (wind, temperature etc. ).
Terrestrial ecosystem – land; aquatic ecosystem – water. The non-living factors of an ecosystem are called biotic factors, whereas living are called biotic factors. Biotic Factors Non-living factors of the ecosystem. Wind, temperature, weather etc. Basically the climate. – Physiographic factors (physical biotic factors) + aspect (the direction the slope is facing egg: north, east, south, west) + slope (the angle of which the surface is rising or falling) + altitude (the height of which the area is above sea level) soil One of the earths most important resources because most plants grow in it.
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The pH, humus content, texture, water retention capacity and air content of the soil can have an effect on the ecosystem. – soil PH + soil pH is the acidity or alkalinity that is present in soil. + the best pH for soil to grow in is between and 7,5 PH. + some plants will only grow in specific pH levels. + the pH levels are determined by the type of rock the soil is made from. – Humus content + A dark brown mixture of organic compounds. + it can absorb large amounts tot water. + Made when plant and animal cells break down, caused by fungi/bacteria. Texture sand large particles which make it feel rough. Sand soil does not hold water but a lot of air. + clay has very small particles which make it feel smooth. Clay soil can hold a lot of water but very little air. + loam is a mixture of clay and sand. Loam soils have a good balance of both water and air. – Water retention capacity + The amount of water a soil is able to hold once excess water is drained away the subsoil. Into + the soils ability to hold water is related to its mineral size, the smaller the particles the more water they can hold, the larger the less water they can old. Plants that grow in a low water retention capacity are called xerography, they are plants with small leaves that lose little water during transpiration. + the opposite to xerography are mesosphere, they have a height water retention capacity and lose a substantial amount of water during transpiration. – Air content + The amount of air between the spaces of each soil particle. + The spaces would either be filled out with water vapor, capillary water or + The amount of air in soil is determined by how compact the soil is. He more compact the soil is the less air present, the less compact the more + air content is vital for respiration for organisms such as bacteria and earthworms. Light Light is needed by the organisms such as plants for photosynthesis. Plants adapt to grow depending on the brightness of the light. Some grow in shade some grow in sun. Day length determines how long the light lasts. Day length varies depending on each season. Plants adapt to growing cycles… egg: water lilt’s grow during summer. Light affects the activities of people. Egg: people wake up when its light and sleep when its dark.
Diurnal animals sleep in the same patters as humans. Nocturnal animals sleep during the day and are active during the night. Crepuscular animals are more active during dawn and dusk. Day length is linked to season change. During winter days were shorter and the air temperature gets cooler. Some animals such as squirrels hibernate during winter because they know they wont tint t and warmth during the winter. When animals hibernate the metabolism slows down so that they need less/little food. Temperature The sun heats the surface of the earth and changes the temperature of the earth.
The earth is heated over 24 hour periods, there are variations in air and soil temperature. Animals are restricted between temperatures and seasonal changes. Temperature effect many things such as as ocean currents, distance from the sea, latitude, altitude, aspect and seasons. Organisms that live in large heated areas would have adapted to their climate. Warm blooded animals usually live in cold areas. Height temperature cause waters to evaporate faster, plants that live in moist areas eve adapted to live in height temperature in different ways. Mammals that live in hot areas have made adaptations such as having short fur or thin fur. Temperature plays important roles in geographical distributions of organisms. Egg: cold blooded organisms migrate to warm areas whereas warm blooded move to cold areas. Water Water is a vital resources on the earth because animals need it to survive. The amount of water on the earth stays constant because it is recycled by evaporation. Water is the factor that controls the growing of plants because plants need water to grow.