Most religions are patriarchal. ;Institution led by men that intend to represent “father figures. ” -Women are mostly seen as supporting figures. -Women are usually supporting social causes. Negative aspects of religion: -deaths and wars -unethical and misguided -political power, groups of followers are able to effect political progress. -may split rather than unify ;rotationally of charisma leads to a focus on the outside rather than Inner spirituality. -exaggeration of guilt -manipulate followers to believe In unethical. Jihad actually means Inner struggle.
Who studies religion? Phenomenology- study specific to the study of Religion from the perspective of the believer. Hermeneutics- the study of the actual religious theory and its interpretation. Indigenous means native to the land. Extraction Globalization vs. Preservation Everything on Earth is equal Indigenous Sacred Ways ;have been little understood by outsiders -secret, sacred beliefs and traditions -lifestyle being connected to land -circle of right relationships with all beings See circles In rituals, the sun&moon, represents no beginning or end as well as everyone relying on each other. Relationship with self and spirit Supreme being is the creator, manifested in every way and everything. -Split Is understood to be their ancestors 2-4-14 Kinship with all creations. Humans are equal to nature. Spirits manifested through rivers, mountains, et cetera. The spirits are believed to be ancestors. Be careful not to anger them, keep them on your good side to protect, help, and serve. Maintain balance and right relationship between all beings, people > ancestors > Cultivate relationships Sacred trust, not to be used for selfish reasons. Spiritual Specialists I. . Shaman Spiritual powers Heal physical, psychological, and social ailments. Shaman: has to go through their own death and spiritual rebirth, develop relationship with physical and nonphysical world. Started in Siberia 20 to 30 thousand years ago. Storytellers- Pass down stories from generation to generation, gives meaning, teaches sacred ways, preserve in secret societies separate men and women. Secret Societies perform ritual called dreaming to get in touch with the spirit world. Poets Trickster-transform Dancing – non-verbal symbol that has meaning through movement.
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Unity; Observances > birth, puberty, marriage, death, survival, celebrations, renewal, purification. Communication broken > lose power of group rituals 2/7/14 Conflicts within; -Corruption -Extremists -Loss of cultural identity around world > morals aka right and wrong -Technology > knowledge of other religions > greater understanding, open mind “Hate crimes” online anonymously, false information, communication for terrorist groups. -Media > propaganda and bias. CHAPTER TWO: Hinduism TEST FEBRUARY 18TH COVERING CHI 1, 2, AND 3. Believe in one god Just different forms. Brahmas. 30,000 million to ass’s of thousands of deities. Hinduism was a term applied by British in the 19th century. Term coined by outsiders who referred to them by their river the Indus calling them Hindus. Hindus believe they are following the Brahmins tradition started in second to mid first millennium BCC(Before Common Era) Samara cycle of birth and rebirth Mimosa escape from cycle of birth and rebirth. Oldest global religion and most complex. Thematic > Philosophical & metaphysical elements. 2/11/14 Sanskrit is the main language, formed from Indo-European languages.
Again- god of fire – similar to ignite in English Started in the Indus Valley> Aryans > began Vivid tradition. (one theory) Aryan is Sanskrit > swastika in Sanskrit> “well being” Started in Dravidian (another theory) Started in IV > People started traveling and coming together (another theory) Foundation of Hinduism are Veda > divided into four collections > upper caste used. Hymns provide gods with offerings. Shrubs texts are what hasn’t been written down, Just heard. Written down to be Veda, passed down from sages. Pinheads focus on mystical elements, inward self exploration. Brahmas is part of the Veda.
Atman the soul. Brahmas is the supreme being. Uniting these two are the ultimate goal. Samara is continuously going through the cycle of life and death, giving more Hansen to unite the two. Determined by karma how well your next life will be. Goal is to be liberated and achieve mimosa, achieving the union. Practice yoga and deep meditation to align the self and charts. This helps end our suffering and end our ignorance which in turn leads you to find yourself. Orthodox Hindus are called Sympathy, the focus on pursues (consciousness of self) and portrait (how we see pursues manifested. Davit Pedant focus solely on how to unite the Brahmas and Atman through the (illusion of) power of Maya (material world) 4 different types of yoga all of their goals are to achieve self-knowledge. Raja- focuses on the mind, mental concentration. Karma- focuses on the right action Joana- tries to answer questions through rational inquiry. Backbit- devotional focusing on their personal deities. (Most popular) Open to women and untouchables Charts are seven energy elements along the spine. Ashamed union with the absolute. Vishnu is the creator, Shiva is the destroyer, and Shasta is the female goddesses.
All 3 can create, preserve, and destroy. 2/14/14 Shasta- Shasta means “great divine mother”. Feminine power manifested in several fierce aspect of Kali, associated with death. Kali the goddess of says. Ex; Durra, change. Linked to nature. Worshipped through sacred text Tantrums. Cavities- Shiva may be considered “lord of yoga”, Shiva is husband of Private. Sometimes represented with Shasta as an androgynous figure. Shiva and Parity’s son is Ganges, deity for a new adventure. Vaccinates- Vishnu, appeared in animal form on Earth, represents the past, present, and future. Female counterpart is Alkalis =, for wealth and good fortune.
Lingua- deity Holy Scriptures Veda- written down text passed down from ages. Purina’s- 500 CE > Emphasized having a personal god Ramadan Magistrate Illustrate theory of Yoga’s (ages). Four different ages: 4th age- Dharma + moral order are declining at its worst level As a result Vishnu is back on Earth as an avatar trying to fix it. Currently in the Kali Yoga. Way of Life Rituals Public – pupas > Parkas – food offerings > Havana- sacred fireplace Women are responsible for private pupas preparation. Is illegal today but still practiced in rural areas. H. -Brahmins- priests -Ashtrays- intellectuals/educators -Visuals- farmers L. Shrouds- tradesmen Untouchables outside of the caste system. Harridans – children of god Four Major Goals Dharma-uphold social and moral order Earth- wealth, success in order to be generous, maintaining Dharma Kamala- happiness, love, pleasure, sensuality Mimosa- liberation from Samara (the cycle of death and rebirth). Each Hindu will have their own guru or spiritual teacher. Guru > male > Brahmins. (Student> Householder> Meditation> Assassin- reincarnation) Assassins may Join a retreat community an ashram, a monastic order R. S. S > Handiness Buddhism 2-28-14 Eightfold Path suffering can be decreased. -right understanding.
Through wisdom, understanding the four noble truth. -right thoughts/motives. Roots of thinking, eliminate self-centeredness, -right speech. Not lying or harmful speech, no gossip or harsh language, think before speaking. -right action. Avoid destroying lives, sexual desires. -right livelihood. By following all of these you -right effort. Doing the right things and living a right livelihood. -mindfulness. Have an open mind, don’t Judge, live in the here and now. -meditate. To quiet the mind and learn how to focus on ending suffering. Seek knowledge in order to obtain Nirvana. Nirvana is the result of karma. Atman- how we think, consciousness.
Monotheistic Four Noble Truths- 1. Dusk is suffering- no permanent self. 2. No permanent satisfaction is possible. 3. Suffering ends when the cycle ends. (Through the Eightfold Path. ) Three root evils. Greed, Hate, Delusion. God (Deities) have human qualities and are subject to the same rules and imperfections. Bad and good. Nirvana (Extinguishing)-Extinction of aging and dying in a way to avoid suffering. Getting rid of Karma (both good and bad). Buddha never told followers how to achieve karma or define the suffering. Art (Worthy one) someone who has achieved nirvana. Split into three different sects of Buddhism throughout India.
Tetrahedral More orthodox. Referred to as “the way of the elders”. Follows the original teachings. Spread south. Show devotion to Buddha through the Pail Canon(aka Tapioca means three baskets where the scripture is kept)- ancient Buddhist scriptures. Dharma down in the first century BBC. Triple Gene- teachings of the Buddha (teacher), Dharma (teachings), and Shanghai (community ex: monastery, community of Buddhists in general). Monks are expected to live simple lives, they live off of the land and donations, people are willing to donate too them so the monks will guide them o follow the eightfold path Devotional practice- offerings to the Buddha.
Mahayana “the great vehicle” follow the instructions Spread throughout the North. Path of compassion and wisdom. They focus on the liberation of all people. Through right thought and right action. All people can achieve nirvana. Encourage all to become bodhisattva, Buddha previous lives, commit themselves others from suffering. To save Compassion to self as well as the shanghai (community). Challenge philosophical views to achieve sunhats, an emptiness or void. Don’t get attached to the results, be patient to achieve the eightfold path. Vagrancy Indestructible path. Practice yoga. Want to speed up the process of enlightenment.