June 12, 2014 History Judaism The history of Judaism begins 3800 years ago with Abraham and his wife Sarah. They became the parents of a people called the Hebrews. Their story Is one of a covenant made between God and Abraham promising that Abraham’s name will be great and his descendants will Inherit a great land (later known as Israel). Israel was once split into two kingdoms, Israel and Judas. The early Judaism practiced in the time of King David and King Solomon is quite different from modern Judaism.
Judaism has changed greatly over the centuries, especially because of the destruction of the temple by the Romans in 70 A. D. This event caused a definitive split into two groups, Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism. Also, the expulsion of the Jews by the Romans out of Judea in 135 A. D. Caused a dispersion of Jews all over Europe and the beginning of many different types Judaism. Christianity Christianity began with the life, death and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth in the first century A. D. Christianity is rooted in the same covenant history as Judaism.
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They ell the stories and covenants of Abraham, Moses, David, and the exile as their own. Christians believe the new covenant with Jesus Is the fulfillment of the covenant God had with Israel. Charlatanry spread to major lands around the area of the life and death of Jesus such as Rome and Greece. SST. Peter and SST. Paul are sometimes seen early church there and were later martyred. Islam Islam was started by a prophet named Muhammad, who was born about 500 years after Jesus in Mecca in Saudi Arabia. At the time of Muhammad birth, Mecca was ruled by polytheistic clans who would make annual pilgrimages to the Kebab in
Mecca which was a structure containing 360 deities. In Islam culture, the Kebab is a holy site that is the house of Allah and was sent down from heaven. They believe it was rebuilt by Abraham and his son Siamese. It was later taken over by the pagans but Muhammad retook it in 630 A. D. In 610 A. D. , Muhammad received his first revelation at Mount Hair, and it is said that the Angel Gabriel appeared to him and uttered the direct words of Allah to Muhammad. He received these revelations until his death in 632 A. D. , and they all make-up the Curran, the Islamic holy book. From 610 to 622 A. D. NY people Joined Islam, but there were still faithful pagans that did not want to desert their religion, and because of this, Muhammad and his followers were forced to migrate to Medina, where they were welcome. This migration is called the Hajji, and marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. After many years of fighting with the Mecca’s, Muhammad made one final pilgrimage to Mecca, which later became a tradition called the Hajj]. Islam grew rapidly in the beginning and has grown to be the second largest religion, the first being Christianity. Buddhism Buddhism origins are traced back to northern India and Hinduism.
Around 400 B. C. , Shattered Augusta, the founder of Buddhism, was born as a prince of a small kingdom. A wise man prophesied Shattered would either become a great king or a great savior. The only way Shattered would become a great savior was if he was exposed to suffering. Even though his father prevented him from being exposed to suffering because he wanted him to be a king, Shattered took a Journey as a young man which exposed him to suffering and led to the beginning of Buddhism. Shattered went on a six year Journey trying to seek enlightenment, which he believed was the end to all suffering.
He did this Journey completely isolated from all physical pleasure. Once he discovered that the way to enlightenment was not through self-denial or over-indulgence, he began following a middle path between the two. For 49 days, Shattered meditated and was in a spiritual battle against the evil god Mar, but finally reached the Great Enlightenment and became the Buddha. He attained a special understanding of human suffering and how to escape that suffering and enter nirvana, but instead of entering nirvana he stayed on Earth to share his insight. His teachings were not recorded until 400 years after his death.
Buddhism is a very popular religion and spread through most of Asia and is quite popular in western culture. Schism The origin of Schism can be traced to one man named Guru Nanas. Nanas was born in 1469 into a Hindu family. Both Muslims and Hindus lived in the Punjab area where Nanas lived and he was influenced greatly by both religions. At the age of 30, he began a spiritual Journey and on this Journey he had a vision of God telling him to start a new religion that proclaimed there to be “no Hindu and no Muslim, but only one human being who is a disciple of God. ” Nana’s life mission was to combine both f these religions.
He began preaching to the Hindus and Muslims, saying that they must become more united. All original rituals were left behind and replaced by experiences, as opposed to Hindu scripture and God’s wisdom found in those scriptures. The fifth guru, Argue Dove, took all the hymns, poems and Sikh wisdom and recorded them into one book known as the Aid Grants. He then built a temple known as the Golden Temple to hold the Aid Grants. On October 3, 1708, the tenth guru, Goblin Sings, declared that there will be no more human gurus and that the sacred writings will be their spiritual guru.
Rituals The Jewish people take their rituals very seriously because rituals are the building blocks of their faith. The Shabby, or Sabbath, is the most sacred day for the Jews because it is the day the Lord rested after creating the world. It begins at sunset on Friday and ends at sunset on Saturday and its focus is on family. Shabby celebrates God’s creation and keeping the Sabbath day holy is the third commandment given to Moses. Another important day in Jewish culture is Peach, or Passover, which celebrates the freedom of the Jews from Egypt.
The Jewish year begins around September with the celebration of Ross Hosanna. At this time the Jewish people declare God king again for the next year and pray for His protection and blessing. Ross Hosanna asks God to remember His covenant with their ancestors. After prayers are said, the rabbi blows the Shafer, the ram’s horn, to herald the beginning of the New Year. The 10 days following Rash Hosanna are called The Days of Awe when the Jews remember they will be Judged by God at the end of time. The 1 lath day after is called Yon Kipper, or Day of Atonement, where all Jews participate in a solemn fast.
Jews also have many rituals surrounding the cycle of life. Eight days after the birth of a boy, the parents, godparents, and a mole, or doctor all gather to perform the rite of circumcision. This ceremony is called brisk which is a sign of God’s covenant with Abraham and the boy will receive his Hebrew name. Becoming married is a very important part of Jewish culture and is filled with rituals. A ring is given to symbolize the marriage and the ceremony ends with the seven blessings for the marriage.
Also, death is taken very seriously and when a parent dies, a son or daughter will recite the caddish, which is a special prayer of sanctification, every ironing and evening for 11 months after the death in the synagogue. Islam Salami’s rituals are split up into 5 different pillars: Creed or Shaded, Prayer or Salt, Alimenting or Katz, Fasting or Swam, and Pilgrimage or Hajj]. Creed is the profession of the Muslim faith: “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. ” Prayer, the second pillar, is required by Muslims to say five times a day.
It involves silent verbal prayer and gestures. All Muslims must attend mosque on Fridays. The third pillar is alimenting where, if they can afford it, requires Muslims to offer their goods to those in need if they have excess. Fasting, which is the fourth pillar, takes place in the month of Ramadan, the month in which Muhammad are to abstain from all physical pleasures and evil thoughts while meditating on the Curran and praying. Ramadan ends with a great feast known as Did al-Fit, or the Feast of the Breaking of the Fast.
The final pillar is the pilgrimage every Muslim is required to do in his or her lifetime, which is a pilgrimage to the Kebab in Mecca. The Hajj] is a time where Muslims are especially focus on living honest, holy lives. Hinduism One of the most common ritual and form of worship in Hindu culture is Pupas. Pupas is the act of worshipping one or more Hindu deities and is most commonly performed in the home. Most Hindu homes have a small room or corner devoted to Pupas and is set as a shrine for worship. An image of a deity is called a Marti and is said to contain some essence of that deity.
The ritual of Pupas is performed by ringing a bell to summon the deity, the lighting of a lamp, the burning of incense, and the worshippers offer fruit, light, flowers, or sweets to the Marti. Any food that is offered to the Marti is eaten by all who are there so that they may share in the deity’s power. Hindus also visit the mandarin, or temple, to offer prayers and devotion to the gods. The temple is made up of complex shrines devoted to different deities. The main deity of that temple is enshrined in the center and all worshippers who enter must remove their shoes, wash their hands, and ring a bell to mark their arrival.
The Pupas performed in the temple is similar to the one in the home except it is led by a priest. Another important ritual called Havana, which involves offering fire that is blessed by pouring oil into the fire while chanting from the Veda, which are Hindu scriptures. The priest and worshippers then dip their fingers in water and touch different body parts to remind them that God is within them. Buddhism Buddhists believe doing different rituals, such as meditation and worship, will help them to achieve enlightenment. Meditation is a way of achieving enlightenment by quieting the mind and to enter more into the spiritual world.
They also believe meditation helps them connect with the Buddhist community and its founder. It is a way for them to remove distractions, free themselves from past memories or future anxieties and be more in touch with the present. Those who meditate may use visual or verbal aids to help them better focus on meditation. These include a Mandela, which is a visual aid; or a mantra, which is a single phrase that is repeated. Buddhist worship usually consists of silent meditation, chanting, or listening to sermons that apply Buddhist teaching to daily life.
Their worship is quite similar to Hindus in that they both make similar offerings and both can take place at home or in a temple. All worship is intended to help Buddhists to reach enlightenment. Schism Radar, or prayer, is always offered before religious gatherings and are an important ritual for Sikhs. They usually consist of a call for the blessings of God, a recitation of history of the ten gurus, a worshipful recitation, and a call for peace and well-being for all humanity. The primary form of worship for Sikhs is meditation on God.
Most Sikh worship is performed in the Guard which is their temple. This worship can be led by any member of the congregation that has a fully working knowledge of the scripture. Their worship is usually done by reciting prayers, hymns, and poems. Upon entering the temple, Sikhs must remove their shoes and place an offering. Worship is ended by the eating off dish called parsed. Central Beliefs One of the greatest and most important beliefs of the Jews is their profession of faith called the Schema: “Hear, O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is one” (Deuteron 6:4).
Their morning and evening prayers are built around this prayer. The Schema also sums up the Jewish scriptures, or Tanana. The Tanana is a story which presents the main teachings of the Jewish faith. The basic story is found in the Torah, the first five books of the bible: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteron. The Torah is the foundation of the Tanana because it is where God makes all of his covenants with the Jewish people. The second most important component of the Tanana is called the Talmud.
The Talmud is a large section consisting of all the Jewish civil and religious laws, which are interpretations of the Torah made by 400 years of rabbis. In addition to the written Torah, the Jews also believe Moses received an oral Torah called the Halvah. The Halvah contains prescribed ways to apply the commandments in the Torah. Islam In Islam, the Shaded sums up all scripture in the Curran. This book contains all the words of Allah to Muhammad. In most Muslim homes, the Curran is wrapped carefully to keep it clean and placed on the highest piece of furniture in the room.
The teaching of the Curran begins very early in the life off Muslim. The Curran is divided into 114 Surpass, or chapters, usually organized from longest to shortest. As Islam grew, and spread through different countries, interpretation of the Curran was needed to make its teachings more understandable. Two sources of interpretation are the Sauna and the Haiti. The Sauna is a collection of the words and actions of Muhammad, originally recorded by his family and friends. The Haiti is generally the same as the Sauna except the Haiti tells stories of what Muhammad was like in person.
Also in contrast to the Sauna, the Haiti was not written by Muhammad inner circle of followers and is debated by many Muslim scholars. Hinduism Hinduism is one of the world’s oldest religions and has changed much over the ages. The first Hindu teachings and stories were memorized and passed on by speech, but were eventually written down. These teachings are placed into two categories: “heard” or “revealed” scriptures, which have come from the deities wrought holy people and “traditional scriptures” which are stories about the deities.
The oldest of the revealed scriptures are the Veda and they were written for the priests containing verses or liturgical formulas, prose that explain the liturgy, explanations meant only for the most learned practitioners, and the “Pinheads”, which means to sit down near. Pinheads is a sort of conversation in which a person learns the Veda from a wise teacher. The traditional scriptures are epic poems that teach Hindus how to behave. Buddhism Buddhism is rooted in Hinduism, which means Buddhists accept many of the Hindu levels.
One of these beliefs is samara, which is the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. The aim all Buddhists have is to break from this cycle and to reach nirvana, which is a state of being freed from personal attachments and suffering; and reaching final peace and balance. Buddhists believe how they should live is reflected in the dharma, which is the teachings the Buddha gave his disciples after he achieved enlightenment. These teachings are commonly known as the Three Jewels, the Three Universal Truths, the Four Noble Truths, and the Noble Eightfold Path.
The dharma, and the sang. The Three Universal Truths are what the Buddhists believe this world is based on: Monica, or impermanence, means nothing is permanent and it all must come to an end; Ducked, or suffering, is the belief that all life contains suffering; and Anta, or not self, means that nothing has permanent identity. The Four Noble Truths are about suffering: people suffer, the suffering is caused by desire, to remove this suffering we must remove desire, and to end suffering and reach enlightenment, one must follow the Eightfold Path.
The Eightfold Path is a way for Buddhists to deal with desire and expectations: right thinking or understanding, eight thought or intention, right speech, right action or behavior, right meditation or contemplation, right mindfulness, right effort, and right living or livelihood. Schism There are eight main beliefs Sikhs follow to live holy lives. Monotheism is their first belief and it is the belief that there is one Incarnated, Eternal God. Sikhs also believe that the world is a good place for people to practice virtuous lives and it is not an illusion or source of suffering.
Human life to them is an opportunity to grow spiritually and become one with God. Guru is a goal all Sikhs try to achieve and is he state of being completely in tune with God’s will for them and once they become a Guru they can carry out the will of God and set all people free. A union with spiritual and worldly lives is encouraged to Sikhs, which means working hard, supporting a family, taking care of the poor, and fighting injustice; although becoming materialistic is discouraged.
God lives within each human heart and this is called Name. Sikhs must keep this in mind at all times and by cultivating Name, they become more humble, loving, and content. Sikhs frown upon rituals and believe they ill only be Judged on their good deeds, not on the performance of rituals. Sikhs also believe all men are equal, as well as men and women. Finally, all Sikhs wish, as Nanas wished, to establish a Just and compassionate society here on earth. Morality The way Jews follow a moral life is to follow and keep God’s mitzvahs, or covenant.
The mitzvahs is instructions on how to live for the Jews and at the heart of it are the Ten Commandments. Rabbis, due to constant cultural change, had to adapt these laws to teach Jews how to keep a moral life after cultural change. The failure to follow the covenant is called sin. To Jews, sin is breaking a relationship with God and breaking the covenant and to restore the covenant, if broken, is to take the day of Yon Kipper as a Day of Atonement and repentance at the fast.
Jews also believe non- Jews must follow some of the mitzvahs by following the covenant with Noah: do not commit idolatry, do not commit blasphemy, do not commit murder, do not commit theft, do not commit sexual immorality, do not remove the and eat the limb of a living animal, and establish a Judicial system with courts of law to enforce the others. Jews see sexuality as a beautiful gift from God and are not supposed to engage in any remedial acts or unnatural acts. Sexuality, to them, is a way of creating life and a bond between a man and a woman after marriage.
Islam Muslims will look in the Curran, Sauna, or Haiti. If a moral issue cannot be found in any of those three, Muslim legal experts provided interpretations, called fish, for different situations. In some cases, a line must be drawn between Shari and legal matters because sometimes society and Shari are quite different and could lead to problems. Hinduism The main goal for Hindus is mimosa, which is the end of the cycle of rebirths. The Hindus Baghdad Gait describes three yoga to reach this goal: knowledge, devotion, and action.
Hindus believe they must follow the quest for spiritual knowledge and truth and they must train their minds to see that the world is Just an illusion. They do this by meditating. The second yoga, devotion, leads Hindus to liberation by choosing a deity and worshipping that deity for the rest of their lives. Hindus believe their religious identity to be tied to certain deities. The final yoga, action, requires Hindus to do their duty, depending on their caste, to the best of their ability. They do not pope to be rewarded they only follow what their dharma requires of them.
Buddhism Buddhists must follow strict ethical rules when trying to be moral and they are The Five Precepts and Buddhist Values. The Five Precepts are ethical guidelines for Buddhists: I undertake the precept to refrain from destroying living creatures; I undertake the precept to refrain from take that which is not given; I undertake the precept to refrain from sexual misconduct; I undertake the precept to refrain from incorrect speech; and I undertake the precept to refrain from intoxicating drinks or drugs, which lead to carelessness.
Buddhists also share common values: self- determination, which means following the eightfold path on their own; mindfulness, which means to be aware of the present moment; compassion, which means to see and feel things from another’s point of view; loving-kindness, which is demonstrating warmth, love and care to others; and finally, detachment, which means not to hold onto guilt or pride from the past and letting goof anxiety about the future.
Schism The Rarity Amerada contains the moral guidelines for Sikhs. Schism has three principles all followers must abide by: devotion to the Divine Name, earning an ones living, and sharing one’s earnings with those less fortunate.
To live a moral life, Sikhs must adhere to the five principle virtues and shun the five vices: sexual relations outside of marriage is prohibited, men and women must see all of those of the opposite sex that are not their spouses as their sisters and daughters or brothers and sons, they must treat all people equal, they must act with modesty and humility, Sikhs must donate one tenth of their earnings to charity, and must participate in Lang through charity of money, food, or time.