In the online article “The History of Public Relations” it said that “as each of the colonies used publicity techniques to attract settlers. In 1 641 , Harvard College initiated the first systematic U. S. Fund-raising campaign, which was supported by the first fund-raising brochure. ” (BMW. Meme. Com) During the time of the American Revolution publicity techniques were dominant. This was because of the conflicts and situations that the country encountered and needed the publics support. According to WV. APRs. Erg publicity is “the deliberate attempt to manage the publics perception of a subject; the act of attracting the media attention and gaining visibility with the public. ” Publicity is necessary to compliment the media and cannot be accomplished internally. Public relations, in the past, have prospered best in times of chaos or crisis. In the youth of the United States, public relations were practiced primarily in the political circle. According to TV. APRs. Org, “The publication and dissemination of the Federalist Papers, which led to the ratification of the U.
S. Constitution, has been called “history’s finest public relations job. ‘” Two main public relations leaders were Ivy Lee, and John D. Rockefeller. Rockefeller gained his reputation from the lack of ethics that him and his family upheld their business upon. According to the film “A Walk Through the 20th Century,” by the end of the American Civil War, Cleveland was one of the five main refining centers in the U. S. And in June 1870, Rockefeller formed Standard Oil of Ohio, which promptly became the utmost profitable refiner in Ohio.
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The Rockefeller oil company grew to become one f the leading shippers of oil and kerosene in the united States. According to the film “A Walk Through the 20th Century,” the name of Rockefeller gained its reputation by upholding a “self-reinforcing cycle of buying competing refiners, improving the efficiency of his operations, pressing for discounts on oil shipments, undercutting his competition, making secret deals, raising investment pools, and buying rivals out. ” Rockefeller flaunted his books to his competitors so they could see what they were up against and after he then would make them an offer.
If the challengers refused his offer, Rockefeller threatened to run them into bankruptcy and then cheaply buy up their assets in auction. He let this be know through media relations. According to www. APRs. Org, Media relations is “the communication between the organization and various media outlets such as newspapers, radio broadcasts and television stations. ” Ivy Lee is considered by some people to be the founder and most influential pioneers of modern public relations. According to the book “Public Relations Today: Managing Competition and Conflict” Ritter by Glen Cameron.
Lee and George Parker together created the third public relations firm in the United States. The new agency “Parker and Lee” was based off of and thrived of “Accuracy, Authenticity, and Interest. ” After the public found out that the Rockefeller were the masterminds behind the shooting and massacre of strikers in 1914, the Rockefeller knew something must be done to help their reputation. When John D. Rockefeller decided that their reputation needed to change he met with Ivy Lee in 1914.
Rockefeller decided to met with Ivy Lee because Lee was known as the “image changer. ” And Rockefeller was well aware that the public was not fond of them According to the video “A Walk Through the 20th Century,” a clip from 1 932 shows John D. Rockefeller Senior being overly kind and thankful for all his support. This was clearly a ploy to try and fix the Rockefeller name. When he would make donations to charities the money would be returned because it was seen as tainted money. According to chapter 3 in the book, “Public Relations Today: Managing
Competition and Conflict,” At first with public relations reputation being more unfavorable than favorable, the PR profession was not always agreed upon. As public relations evolved from propaganda to communication for the people, citizens started to respect it as a profession. Public relations has evolved more within the last 20 years then it has overall. Its reputation has not always been the most favorable, and many people viewed public relations as propaganda. PR professionals has shaped public relations into a more respectable profession; making it completely for an bout the people.