flection: refers to the fact that a brand is a customer reflection. Reflecting the customer does however not mean the same as describing the target, rather the customer should be reflected as he or she wishes to be seen as a result of using a brand. The brand owner should not require advertising to show the targeted buyers as they really are, but how they wish to be. All brands must control their customer reflection as consumers use brands to build their own identity (Kapferer, 2004). While reflection is the target’s outward mirror, self-image refers to the target’s own internal mirror.
A person develops a certain type of inner relationship with him or herself through the attitude towards particular brands. CHAPTER 2 TOURISM DESTINATION 2. 1 Introduction To Tourism Terrorism, natural disasters, health scares, oil price rises, exchange rate fluctuations and economic and political uncertainties ??? these were just some of the issues faced by tourism industry in 2005. Yet, according to the news from World Tourism Organization (UNWTO, 2006a, Dec 13), international tourist arrivals beat all expectations in exceeding 800 millions and achieving an all-time record.
Don’t waste your time!
Order your assignment!
Although world tourism growth was moderate in 2005, it was still almost one-and-a-half percentage points above the long-term average annual growth rate of 4. 1%, which means a consolidation of the bumper growth achieved in 2004 (+10%). Tourism has transformed itself into a successful industry, and today is one of the largest economic sectors in the world, representing “3-5% of GDP, jobs and investment in industrialised states and up to 30% in developing states, representing a socioeconomic lifeline for the poorest states as it is a top export” (UNWTO, 2006b, Nov 28).
Again according to World Tourism Organization (WTO 2006) substantial increase of tourism activities indicates the potential of the industry. Tourism industry depends largely on the economy of a given market. According to Etienne and Binns (2002), service sectors have received a considerable impetus from distinguished consumers preference, choice and wealth. Tourism is one of the emerging sectors that have taken a lead. The growth of other sectors in the economy complements tourism industry at large. Statistically the increase of consumer’s income fuels expenditure patterns in many economic sectors particularly tourism activities.
Tourism has been identified as one of the economy drivers for most countries. This emerging sector is currently comparable to other competitive economic sectors as telecommunication industry etc. Apparently, most countries are striving to promote their destinations abroad. International promotion is carried through different media vehicles depending with image situation. The WTO has a vision that captures most of place marketer’s attention. According to the WTO by the year 2020 international arrival will reach to approximately 1. 56 billion.
Out of the projected number, intraregional number is expected to increase to 1,2 billion. Hence, long haul travellers alone is projected to reach 0. 4 billion. Notably, statistics shows that long haul travellers will grow at the rate of 5. 4 percent per year, between the years 1995 ??? 2020. This forecast for growth of long haul opens an avenue for distant destinations as South Africa and others WTO (2006). Among other regions that are projected to become beneficiaries of this the trend with annual growth of 5 %, includes Sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, East Asia and the Pacific.
Cabrini (2002) identified some general trends of world tourism development: there is a clear tendency toward shorter stays when going on holidays, but “greater fragmentation of holidays” for reduction in working hours and an increase of paid leave days. This means modern tourists might travel several times throughout one year for a shorter duration. The climate change in terms of wider economic, political and environmental situations, and in the tourism marketplace will definitely create a 2 challenging situation for tourism destinations (Carter and Fabricius, 2006).
On the other hand, there is a shift from active holidays to holidays as an experience, which aims to achieve a complete participative experience and obtain new knowledge as well as authentic emotions; and “higher demand for customised holidays”, especially by the mature part of the tourist market. Accordingly, Carter and Fabricius (2006) pointed out the growth in demand for more customised, experience based products meant the potential tourists would choose a tourism destination based on the type and quality of experiences that it offers.
Undoubtedly, this will escalate competition levels among tourism destinations. Therefore, in an increasingly competitive marketplace, it is essential for a tourism marketer to differentiate its destination from the competitors’. As Carter and Fabricius (2006) pointed, tourism authorities must pay equal attention in the future to: (1) the destination brand and the values that it conveys to customers; (2) the nature and quality of the destination experience. It seems as if the best way a tourism destination can position itself is to offer something unique to target market segments. . 1 Psychology of tourist consumers Before psychology of tourist consumers we need to explain tourism markets. According to Hollow & Plant (1989) tourism market is “In general a market can be described as defined group of consumers for a particular product or range of products” Generally speaking, tourists are consumers who purchase a set of tourism services and products that are available at the market. Understanding consumer’s needs and wants (psychology) is fundamental.
Studies conducted in exploring the premise why tourism consumers prefer one destination against another cites that the finding might ease promotion strategy Hollow & Plant (1989). Please note in further section(s), we discuss the elements of image and its effects. Thus, consumer’s perception and cognitive towards a product (destination) is further elaborated to understand the effects of country image. Instance, a place marketer in a destination curbed with low visibility needs to consider raising awareness of its destination to the target market.
Apparently the image(s) that people hold on product or region are basically based on the premises of their cognitive, psychological or previous experience towards a destination. The consumer psychology of tourism is explored to foster understanding how does image or perceptions of given destinations affects consumer’s evaluation process. We can start by defining consumer psychology concept; According to Muller and Johnson (1990) consumer psychology is a scientific study of consumer’s behaviour in evaluation of products prior the purchasing process.
We take another point of view to foster further understanding. Foxall and Goldsmith (1994) hold that “consumer choice is portrayed as an ego ??? involving sequence of cognitive, affective, and cognitive changes which precede and predetermines the purchases outcome” A set of consumers models have been developed in examining the complexity nature of consumer reaction to a given stimuli. Consumers can be categorized into three behaviour stages. Stage one is a “problem solving”, whereas consumers have little or limited knowledge about product or destination.
It is cited that, at initial stage consumer’s decisions are shallow where buying decision is anchored on the current knowledge or For simplicity, the term “destination” is hereto referred as a general product. Notably, other studies on tourism, infer each tourism service as a specific product. A natural question arises, when consumers search for new product(s), for instance a new pair of shoes or holiday package, do consumers really need these products or a desire aroused from a stimuli? Notably, the interaction of stimulus and exogenous factors fuels consumers responding in set of directions.
In first instance, the author suggests attention to new products or service must take place. Second phase, consumers are made aware or get acquainted with the product so that they can acknowledge an image brand of a product. The third stage is where consumers, develop intention to acquire or purchase a product. Lastly, consumers engage in purchase activity. These stages can be well summarized by AIDA model which is abbreviated as (attention, interest, desire and action) Holloway & Plant (1989). In view of Foxall & Goldsmith (1994), the three phases include, pre- purchase, purchase and post purchase.
Remarkably all purchasing stages are unique in respect of tourism, hospitality and leisure (THL). It is argued that THL pre- purchase stage starts a bit in advance in comparison to traditional products. The pre-purchase process commence by making purchasing decisions which are out of reach (distance destination) and taking to consideration of sensitivity of purchasing intangible products based on “image”. It is rather challenging for THL consumers to make purchasing decision that requires a considerable duration of time, taking into account selecting set of choices and activities during the vacation.
Naturally, most of tourist consumers make their decision based on past experiences. The second phase, purchase & acquisition stage encompasses the travel itself which is the main or core benefit of a tourist product. At this stage a travel consumer must travel to a destination and consume a product. Post ??? purchase phase is also significant aspect of THL marketers as most tourists’ consumers make postpurchases based on the experiences (satisfied or dissatisfied) phase “purchase and consumption stage”.
Naturally satisfied tourists might collect artefacts or “souvenirs” from a place visited to exhibit to friends and family regarding the image and experience of the destination. In other words the process of tourist sharing with colleagues and family members is referred as “word of mouth” which is significant in influencing positive or negative recommendation of a destination Geoffrey et al (2003). Kotler et al (1993), shares same view by asserting that, post-purchase behaviour, depends with the past experiences (satisfaction or dissatisfaction) of the purchased product(s).
In light of consumers buying behaviour, there are sets of models related to our argument. Consumer buying behaviour is influenced by many other elements which entail cultural, sociological, personal, and psychological factors. Further it is imperative for a marketer to understand the process of the buyer’s consciousness between the arrival of external stimuli and the buyers purchase decision Kotler (2000). In view of Kotler et al (1993) consumer’s evaluation phase articulates that, consumer forms preference among a given choice of destinations.
Two other factors are hereto presented. The first is attitudes to others. Based on the word of mouth attribute, in instance of close friends or a trusted tour operator informs a loyal customer who is about to make travel decision that a given destination is unsafe. As a result, the probability to make decision to a given destination is thus shifted or dwindles to a certain degree. A buyer’s preference for a place increases if a potential traveller is well recommended by a close friend or trustful informant of a destination Kotler et al (1993).
In view of Gee et al (1997) motivation to a travel to destination derives from two significant premises, “psychologically and “sociological factors”. With regard to leisure travel Gee et al (ibid) hold that modern science still lacks ability to analyze the comprehensive human’s choices and emotions in making decisions on travel destinations. Further, Gee categorized psychological factors that trigger decisional choice. 2. 3 The Defination of Toursim Destination Manfield (1992) has noted the term destination is often vaguely defined in tourism research which is problematic to the study of destinations in the tourism system.
The figure 2. 1 provides a sampling of these definations for destinations and related terms in tourism literature. Figure 2. 2:Definations of Destinations Destination mixA unique relation ship in the hospitality and the travel industry Involving attractions and events, facilities, infrastructure and transportation amenitiesMorison Hospitality and Travel Marketing, 2002 Destination zoneThe presentation and concentration of tourists facilities so that visiters can benefit from attractions and services located togetherPearce, Morrison, Rutledge, Tourism: Bridges Across Continents, 1998
Tourism destinations A tourism destination is a package of tourism facilities and services, which, like any other consumer product or service is composed of multidimensional attributes that together determine its attractivenessto a particular indiviual in a given choice situation Hu, Ritchie, 1993 Destinations Places with some form of actual or percieved boundary, such as pysical boundary of an island political boundaries or even market created boundaries Kotler, Bowen, Makens, 2003
These definations recognize that the destinations incorparet a distinctspace and are composed a variety of products, service and features. This defination can therefore accomodate a variety of geographical divisions including stares, regiongs and cities. Based on these definations, it is proposed a city can be considered a destination.