Mass media has played a crucial role in the American politics. TV commercials have influenced the outcome of elections. One Timeline theme is the effect of technological advances on the development of the media. Like how the invention of the printing press made the mass production of newspapers possible, the invention of high-speed Internet access has led to an increase in the diversity and specialization of news to individual audiences. A second Timeline theme is the shift in the economic aspects of mass media.
When newspapers were the most likely form of mass media, there were hundreds of newspapers in circulation in the US, with a wide selection of editorial perspectives and appealing to all kinds of audiences. Recently television has supplanted newspapers as the source of news for most people. 1704: The first regularly published newspaper in the America, The Boston News-Letter, appeared in 1704. The paper contained obituaries and schedules of ship arrivals. Many newspapers filled their pages with sermons, literary works, and philosophical pieces, as well as advertisements.
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One example, the Pennsylvania Gazette. In 1784, Philadelphia had the first daily newspaper in the United States, the Pennsylvania Packet. Newspapers played an important role in politics after the Revolutionary War. The Federalist Papers, written mainly by James Madison and Alexander Hamilton supporting the ratification of the Constitution. Writing under the name Publius, Madison and Hamilton helped to persuade public opinion in favor of ratification in New York and Virginia.
In the 1830s Changes in printing press technology, combined with the decision to attract a working-class audience, allowed publishers to sell their newspapers to reduce prices from six cents to one penny, The first of the penny press, appeared in 1833. Newspaper readership in the 19th century because of the population expansion, the invention of the telegraph, the growing availability of electricity, and the increased use of sensational journalism. 1920: In the 1890s, inventors and entrepreneurs made advances in wireless communication using radio waves. In 1902, transmitting speech and music over the air was demonstrated, building radio transmitters and receivers became a hobby. In 1912, the government required amateur radio operators to have a license. In 1920, the first broadcasting stations licensed for commercial purposes went on the air. In 1922-23 the number of radio stations increased from 30 to 556. The largest radio manufacturer, RCA, sold $85 million worth of radios over three years. By 1930, after the NBC and CBS radio networks were established,US businesses were spending a total of $40 million to advertise their products and services on radio.
The 1930s “the golden age of radio,” was an inexpensive form of entertainment for millions of Americans coping with the depression. President Roosevelt used the radio to promote his New Deal agenda and to calm a worried nation. After World War II, television became increasingly popular. The invention of transistor technology and headphones allowed radios to become portable, unlike the TV sets. Across the country, programming produced by National Public Radio (NPR), funded by government subsidies, provided extended news coverage and analysis not found on most other stations.
Today, radio remains a popular source not only of entertainment but also of news. 1939: The first commercial television stations went on the air in 1939, marking the beginning of the television industry;World War II interrupted the development of television. Five years later, that number had risen to 12 million households with a TV. Now, 99 percent of U. S. households have at least if not two or three. In the 50s and 60s, television broadcasting was dominated by three giant companies, NBC, CBS, and ABC. Other than the occasional independent UHF channel, there were three channels to watch.
In 1969, the PBS began operation, providing educational, public-interest programming on a noncommercial basis. Expansive growth of cable TV boomed in the 70s and 80s. The invention of VCRs and the widespread availability of movies on videocassettes offered viewers more alternatives to network programming. Citizens disagree about the political, economic, and social effects of the concentration of mass media ownership. Although some see gains in efficiency and increasing diversity of media content, others see potential problems. 1948: The beginnings of cable TV can be traced to 1948 in Tuckerman, Arkansas.
Davidson was frustrated by an inability to get clear reception. He placed a 100-foot tower atop a two-story building and connected it using coaxial cable to television sets in his store. Within a few years, cable television systems had been constructed across the country, serving thousands of subscribers. In 1963 threatened by competition from cable, broadcasting networks successfully lobbied to increase government regulation of the cable industry. In the 1970s, cable TV experienced a surge due to technological advances and the partial deregulation of the cable industry by the government.
Later, it bounced its signal off satellites that blanketed the US and reached thousands of additional subscribers at greatly reduced cost. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 was designed to break down any remaining barriers to competition in the telecommunications industry and to allow more companies to participate. However, this legislation resulted in the increased corporate concentration discussed in the previous segment. Even though many new stations emerged, the cable industry has not escaped. 1962: In 1962, the first communications satellite, Telstar, was launched.
In 1976, television programming was delivered by satellite. There have been two important consequences of satellite technology. Satellite technology offers the opportunity for over 1,300 local stations to enlarge their audience and Instant transmission of news from around the globe. A powerful example of the use of satellite transmission to revolutionize news and political coverage was in the 1999 Elian Gonzales story. Elian Gonzales was rescued from the sea by the U. S. Coast Guard after the boat failed to withstand the 90-mile journey from Cuba to the US.
A custody battle between Elian’s relatives in Miami and his father in Cuba. The story not only generated intensive news coverage but also created diplomatic tensions between the United States and Cuba. When a U. S. court eventually ordered the boy to be returned to the custody of his father, Elian’s Miami relatives refused to cooperate. In response, the lawyer representing Elian’s father moved to quickly release a second photo of Elian in a happy embrace after he was reunited with his father, to counter the negative public opinion generated by the first image, then many people felt he was were he belonged. 969:??The origins of the Internet date to 1969, when the Department of Defense set up four computer network codes on university campuses and established Advanced Research Projects Agency Net. The World Wide Web has affected countless aspects of American society, including the way in which we obtain and analyze political information. In a 2006 survey, roughly 1 in 3 Americans use the Internet as their primary source of news, compared to 1 in 50 in 1996. Citizens can obtain candidate profiles and analysis of candidate issue positions or even send a quick e-mail. Because it allows asy entry the Internet has the potential to increase concentration. The World Wide Web can serve as a truly democratizing force, providing ordinary citizens with the capacity to take a greater role in the political process. Yet, this democratizing potential may not be achieved because the rapid increase in the number of Web sites it also makes it easier for those not very interested in politics to completely avoid news about public affairs. 2007: The increases ownership of the mass media has given rise to a debate regarding the social, political, and economic effects of this trend.
Some people argue that, with the advent of the World Wide Web, the diversity of information that all of the forms of popular media pose little threat to the health of the democratic process. Others think that the growing power of the media giants will undermine the democratic nature of the American political system. Ben Franklin: a polymath, who knew five languages, and was born in Massachusetts. He was a founding father, who opposed slavery and played major roles in scientific discoveries. During the American revolution he helped in securing the french alliance. e was a very good political and scientific writer. he invented the lightning rod, the Franklin stove, medical catheter, swim fins and bifocals to name a few. he published the colonies’ first newspapers known as the Pennsylvania Gazette. Publication started in 1729. (1706-90) FDR: The democratic, 32 president who contracted polio, served four terms in office. He is one of the best presidents of the US. He created many programs in office including the New Deal, the Social Security System, and the regulation of Wall Street. He used the radio in a positive way.
He was married to Anna Eleanor Rossevelt, a social and political activist. Walter Cronkite: an american icon TV journalist, who was “the most trusted man in America. “He was a CBS news anchor, whose statements expanded the antiwar movement in the US. (1916-now) Rush Limbaugh: He is a conservative talk show host from Missouri. He dropped out of state collage and started his radio career in 1967. He has been married and divorced three time. The ratings of Limbaugh’s show had the largest U. S. audience in 2005. He has received the Marconi Radio Award for Syndicated Radio Personality of the Year four years in a row.