Task 1 1 . a The various elements of Marketing Process ORGANIZATION CULTURE “Organizational culture is the sum of values and ritudals which serve as ‘glue’ to integrate the members of the organization. ” ????” Richard Perrin page 4by Michael Watkins May 15, 2013 Culture is a carrier of meaning. Cultures provide not only a shared view of “what is” but also of “why is. ” In this view, culture is about “the story” in which people in the organization are embedded, and the values and rituals that reinforce that narrative.
It also focuses attention on the importance of symbols and he need to understand them ????” including the idiosyncratic languages used in organizations ????” in order to culture understand. Organizational culture is the values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization culture includes the organization values, visions, norms, working language, systems, symbols, beliefs and habits. It is also the pattern of such collective behaviors and assumptions that are taught to new organizational members as a way of perceiving, and even thinking and feeling.
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The definition of culture implies three things: perception, shared and descriptive. ORGANIZATION CULTURE ISSUES Let see Apple company how they represent current issues in organization culture. Organizational Culture at Apple, Apple Inc. is a global computer manufacturing company that is going through major changes in its organizational culture and it is organizational structure due to several events of the past few years. This is a company that grew extremely fast in little time, that their management found themselves not being able to keep their operations and finances under control. Apple Inc. as been forced to reevaluate and redesign culture and organizational structure to avoid bankruptcy. The organizational culture of Apple is one of change; with the drive to outperform and succeed as their major objectives. The culture of Apple was based on an ideal that self-motivated individuals will work harder if they do not have a boss micromanaging every action. The unique structure of Apple had allowed it to grow and react more quickly to changes than its competitors. The reason for the quick responsiveness is simple; it is much easier to get a project started if there are only a few people to obtain approval from.
Apple initially grew fast, because decisions were made at the lowest possible level. Corporate headquarters made olicy and oversaw all activities, but the local employees made the day-to-day decisions on the ground in countries all over the world. This type of top-down philosophy allowed for quick responsiveness and resolutions to situations without involving the corporate headquarters, thus avoiding corporate red tape (Mc Shane and Travgltone, 2005, pp 89-290) ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE Organization structure is the formal arrangement of Jobs within an organization.
This structure which can be shown visually in an organization chart, also serve many purpose. When manager create or change the structure, they are engaged in rganization design, a process that involves decisions about six key elements, work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, centralization, ana decentrallzatlon, ana Tormallzatlon. I nus, every managerial decision is a best-effort compromise made in an environment of uncertainty, its follow these steps: 1.
Defining / Identifying the managerial problem, 2. Analyzing the problem 3. Developing alternative solutions, 4. Selecting the best solution out of the available alternatives 5. Converting the decision into action Fifgurel : Decision making process l. b Organizational Chart Figure 2: Company Organization Chart Departmentalization is the basis by which Jobs are grouped together. Organizations may be departmentalized by function, product, geography, process, or customer.
So for this company the departmentalization functional having: Administrative Division, Investigate Division, Support Division and Uniform Division The chain of command is an unbroken line of authority that extends from the top of the organization to the lowest level and clarifies who reports to whom. The unity-of-command principle states that a person should have only one supervisor to whom he or she is directly responsible. Bellow of Administrative have profile, planning… lnvestigate, family protect, task force, specialist detail. Under Support service have record, information, security office, maintain service, system administrative.
Final is Uniform, their chain includes special operation, patrol selection and traffic selection Span of control refers to the number of employees that can be directed by one manager. Narrow spans of control allow for close control, while wider spans of control reduce costs, speed up decision making, increase flexibility, and empower employees. That company let talk about chain of employee, one department is controlled by one anager and must be follow him. The ideal span of control will Decentralized organizations allow lower-level personnel or provide input or actually make decisions.
The recent trend has been towards decentralization and this trend design for this company. Because this a big company, they cannot come one by one to ask the chef. For instance, when company met problem about vehicle maintain, if it is not so heavy, the supervisor of that department can solve or maybe can ask for security office support them Task 2 Green Fashion The Brilliant Business Model Behind H&M’s Clothes Recycling Plan” From Business small on June 24 ” This story is what I mention about managerial decision and what let them to this decision. Last of part is what can I study from this story.
H & M is The world’s second-biggest retailer, and they want make environment become Green. In fact it is not easy to do but it can geta lots profit. By that idea they Degln to make plan ana ao It I ney give some promotlon ana nave a Tasclnatlng new plan to cut waste in the fast-fashion business. H&M sustainability manager Henrik Lampa told Bloomberg: “We don’t want clothes to become waste, we want them to become a resource indeed. He want the clothes become a resource indeed. By the time it next reports earning, H may have recycled a bunch of ratty old skinny Jeans into revenue.
If the recycling program functions correctly, it could help turn around H’s same-store sales, which fell another 4 percent in the three months through May’ So WHAT IS DICISION from this story, we can analysis: It is “GREEN” said by manager Henrik Lampa told Bloomberg: “We don’t want clothes to become waste, we want them to become a resource indeed” WHAT LED TO THAT DECISION: Because he don’t want waste clothes and he want to recycle its, he want to make it become esources for new product From this innovation and strategies what was happened?
For next reports earning, H&M may have recycled a bunch of ratty old skinny Jeans May. The most important they can earn from this decision is customer satisfaction, almost customers feel company is generous and company get a good impression, they also bring a lots customer from this decision What bring to my mind from this story? Before answer this question, Just ask yourself, Do you like the clean environment, a green life? As we see from results we will know “Green” decision get good business for company and effect to customers.
Meaning before I want to give any decision I must be get acknowledge “what is important to focuses, and it is need”, and what is the best ways to do it. Like H & M they no need to buy a system to make Green, by the simple ways to use old product to recycle become new product. Is it environment of human and they was point at customer psychology. And the second point is that decision is easier to drive buy a nee but you must be flexible in creating 2. b Leadership style Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people.
Kurt Lewin (1939) led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership. This early study has been very influential and established three major leadership styles: (Lewin, Llippit, White 1939, U. S. Army Handbook, 1973) autocratic or authoritarian participative or democratic delegative or laissez-fair. As we know, no leadership style is the best and appropriate for all situations. Instead a manager can adopt the leadership style depend on the situation. There is a need for matching leaders and Job situations to achieve organizational effectiveness. Often, your technical skills can only take you so far.
To help you move forward in your career, you need soft skills such as the ability to be a good leader. Therefore, leadership skills are considered to be important traits which can help you get to the top of your career field. You’re more likely to be hired or get a promotion if you’ve been successful in leadership roles in your professional or personal life. Few people are born to be leaders. Most of us need to practice being a good leader, and that’s why leadership development is so important. There are many different types of leadership, and there are many skillsets that can help you become a successful leader.
In my view if I want become a true leader I will think about Demographic style. It sounds easy enough. Instead of one defined leader, the group leads ItselT. Egalltarlan to tne core, democratic leaders are Trustratea Dy tne enormous effort required to build consensus for even the most mundane decisions as well as the glacial pace required to lead a group by fiat. The potential for poor decision-making and weak execution is significant here. The biggest problem with democratic leadership is its underlying assumptions that everyone has an equal stake in an outcome as well as shared levels of expertise with regard to decisions.
That’s rarely the case. While democratic leadership sounds good in theory, it often is bogged down in its own slow process, and workable results usually require an enormous amount of effort. This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect. This is normally used when you have part of the information, and your mployees have other parts.
A leader is not expected to know everything????”this is why you employ knowledgeable and skillful employees. Using this style is of mutual benefit as it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions. So the first I will be taking initiative. Most bosses will assign their employees tasks that the employees have proven to be adept at. Therefore, don’t wait to take on more responsibilities. Go above and beyond at your current position. A good way to develop your skills is to take on extra projects outside of your Job description.
How to improve my leadership style? In my view, the first, the more work you do, the more you are learning. Beside that you also must be critical thinking, you can hire for a high-profile Job, you will need to be a critical thinker. Good leaders are able to foresee potential problems before they happen. They can then develop ways to prevent the problems from happening. Good leaders are also aware of potential opportunities and take advantage of them to benefit the company and employees. Listening effectively, as we know one of the most important skills for a leader is listening.
Without listening skills, you are not able to get feedback from others and get a sense of what team members like about the projects they work on. Feedback is a key. To listen effectively, you need to maintain eye contact, avoid distractions and respond appropriately. Keep in mind, communication is not only about verbal communication. Be aware of body language and gestures to determine what people are really saying. Motivate others if your actions inspire to another person, to them dream more, they want learn more, do more and become more, you will be a leader.
A true leader should be affected people. When employees or coworkers lose their ambitions and passions, a true leader can analyze and motivate them. How do leaders motivate people? First, they know what people need and want. Sometimes, they are facing difficulties, tired of doing the same repetitive tasks or disappointed, they will lose their motivation because they are not being asked to get involved. As a plan to become a leader on two years future, I will talk to them what’s going on, and share your personal stories with them to encourage them to get energy and power to be strength.
I will be strictly and make fun on time. Especially I will make them respect me by my knowledge and my ways management Task 3 3. a Employee recognition example Before I came to Singapore, I worked V- Freight Ltd. My company sale furnisher and transTer to European market. At tnat time I worked as customer service, ana my manager want to offering an extra week of paid vacation for employees that reach their five-year service anniversary can be part of a package that improves employee retention. Employees that exhibit good attendance each quarter can be rewarded with an extra paid personal day off.
Time-off rewards packages can be as simple as llowing the person voted “employee of the month” to take one half-day off each week during the month I am honored. Beside that another sale department giving the “50 chairs, Paris trip” awards, it means who can sale 50 wood chairs one month will get the trip to Paris. Of course all of staffs try to persuade and find cooperation partner. And one things specially was happened. One of staff in Sale Department got it. She reach the target and company was recognition her achievement.
Some of my friend they worked at 69 Pizza Restaurant, their restaurant awards is not eally big, they only can get weekend party if they received good comments from customers. But to them it is enough energy and motivation to perform their goals . Another example is about Viet Travel Tourist company, their program called “New way’ it means if any staff, tour guide can pass the “l am the best tour guide” Contest will be promote to upper position. To me I really like this incentive of Viet Travel. All tour guide try to learn soft skill and hard skill to past this contest.
And what was happened? So surprised all of them was performed really good, but the assistant of Marketing Department was recognition. She was become the best tour guide, and promote to marketing manager, every people must be recognition her ability “Page 175 chapter seven Motivating Employee Organization and Behaviour of Stephen P. Robins Mary Coulter”, one excited example is about managers at Yum Brands Inc. were looking ways to reduce employee turnover. They found a successful customer service program involving peer recognition at the firm ‘s KFC restaurants in Australia.
Workers there spontanrously rewarded fellow workers with “Champs cards, an acronym for attributes such as cleanliness, hospitality, and accuracy’. Yum implemented the program in other restaurants around the word and credits the peer recognition with reducing hourly employee turnover from 181 percent to 109 percent. From five examples above we know there are a lots ways to encourage workers, employee.. it can be money, prizes, plaques, travel and public commendations. The payouts of sales contests are usually called “awards”.
All of the methods to incentive also get benefit, by others way they also want to complete duties, tasks and goals. We cannot say this method is good or another is not good, because it depend on every eople requirements, purposes and targets. Task 4 4. a Group Conflict What is group conflict? Group conflict is always on the edge of any team project or organization. Knowing that group conflict can potentially reveal itself at any moment, can help managers and team leaders deal with potential issue and thus deal with group conTllct DeTore It arises.
Group conTllct can De separated Into two sun- categories of conflict: inter-group conflict (in which distinct groups of individuals are at odds with one another), and intra-group conflict (in which select individuals a part of the same group clash with one another). Although both forms of conflict have the ability to spiral upward in severity, it has been noted that conflict present at the group level (i. e. , inter-group rivalries) is generally considered to be more powerful than conflict present at an individual level – a phenomenon known as the discontinuity effect.
When is conflict functional and when is it dysfunctional? According to researcher it depends on type of conflict. There are three kinds of conflict, task conflict, relationship conflict and process conflict. The first is Task Conflict, that conflict means over content and goals of work . Task conflict arises when intra-group members disagree on issues that are relevant to meeting shared goals. Second is Process Conflict, that conflict happen when over how work gets done which refers to disagreement over the methods or procedures the group should use in order to complete its tasks.
It occurs when strategies, policies, and procedures clash. Relationship Conflict it means conflict base on interpersonal relationship, it is also known as affective conflicts, personality conflicts, emotional conflicts, or relationship conflicts, are conflicts that occur when group members dislike one another. One study of high level corporate executives revealed that 40% of disputes were due to “individual enmity between the principals without specific reference to other issues” (Morrill, 1995, p. 69). Criticism, when one person evaluates another, or his/her work negatively, is one common cause of personal conflict.
When your work at a team, a group and you see the conflict arise, how do you handle it? If a team member has a conflict with the team leader, the first step is to identify the type of conflict. The most conflict happen is Relationship conflict and how to handle it. It means discussed rivately between the team leader and team member, or between member to member. Let’s talk about conflict between team member and team leader. In my opinion the team member should explain for leader that there appears to be conflict and how he or she wants to resolve it, team leader should be gather them and talk together, slowly analysis and solve problem.
Team leader need to understand team member and after that he can make an event, for example, do a gamble mean Leader. It means every team member can become the team leader, and then all team members can understand difficulties of team leader. In conclusion, team conflict is n important and integral part of any team that exists. As we have outlined it in this chapter, conflict, if approached effectively and managed appropriately, can exponentially work in the favor of any team. In my opinion appropriate management of the relative type of team conflict at hand is critical for teams to be successful.
These concepts will help teams improve their functionality and dynamic effectiveness in an effort to reach their ultimate goals in reaching to be a high performing team. 4. b Control Measure for employee and organization At this part I will manager of a customer call for time share vacation. The question is how to control to see efficient and effective an employee Control measure for employee: I believe individual employees should be measured as to how many calls he or she handles in a day, the number of time shares they have sold, positive or negative survey TeeaoacK In tne areas 0T Trlenallness ana Knowledge 0T products or services offered.
Then I want to add control measures to monitor the knowledge of products or services of each individual in relation to set targets. I would like to evaluate methods being used by the individual to make their sales, so I can control measure by monthly sale. The end of the day, whether in the private, public or voluntary sector, it is all about adding value. Employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction are always a means to an ends, in some higher purpose. Measuring contribution towards that higher purpose is surely the ultimate measure of success.
Control measure for organization: For the call center as a whole, I would like to measure the total number of calls received in a day, the number of dropped calls or missed sales in a day, whether calls are being dispersed evenly amongst representatives working in a given day and how many calls each person takes on average in a day. After that I will implement stronger controls in measuring the total sales on a daily basis, to compare historical data year over year for profit and call history data. So last year total sale will be control measure.
Another solutions is depending on index, It means when the index rate goes up, it means that your financial measurement in case of financial index is satisfactory and no immediate action required even if one of its indicator is not doing well and so on if index goes down.. With further drill down to its indicator you can point the reason that affects this drop that will give you a focus and quick win olution technique to raise the performance in limited time. Feedback control refers to the control that concentrates on the post organizational performance.
So for this situation I will use feedback control to assess the performance. Range goal means standards that set a balance between the short range and long range goals. 1 . Task la and 1b 1 Task 4a and 4b… ………………… References………………………………………….. 86 Appendix…… 97 Table of contents List of references 2. Task 2a and 2b ………………………………………………. 3 3. Task 3…………………………………………………. … 7 5. List of 1. Richard Perrin page 4by Michael Watkins May 15, 2013 2.
Decision Making Process In Management – Problem Solving. 2013. Decision Making Process In Management – Problem Solving. [ONLINE] Available at: http://kalyan- city. blogspot. com/2010/06/decision-making-process-in-management. html 3. The Brilliant Business Model Behind H&M’s Clothes Recycling Plan – Businessweek. 2013. The Brilliant Business Model Behind H’s Clothes Recycling Plan – Businessweek. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www. businessweek. com/articles/2013-06-24/the- brilliant-business-model-behind-h-and-ms-clothes-recycling-plan.