It is through arresting that product or services of the company are reaching to the customers. The company gets the money back when the products are sold out in the market. So the business cycle keeps on going further. It Is required to coordinate the marketing activities and necessary to work in close coordination with production. Production alone Is not going to serve the purpose. Production without marketing become useless for the company and marketing without production Is not possible. Similarly, marketing is related to other activities like finance, research and human resource activities.
The main concern of this paper is with marketing activities and marketing communication in particular. Marketing is the process by which companies create customer interest in goods or services. It generates the strategy that underlies sales techniques, business communication, and business developments. It is an integrated process through which companies build strong customer relationships and create value for their customers and for themselves. Marketing Is used to identify, satisfy, and keep the customers.
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With the customer as the focus of Its activities, It can be included that marketing management Is one of the major components of business management. Marketing evolved to meet the needs in developing new markets caused by mature markets and overcapacity’s. The adoption of marketing strategies requires businesses to shift their focus from production to the perceived needs and wants of their customers as the means of staying profitable. Achieving organizational goals depends on knowing the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions more effectively than competitors.
Marketing Is a very Important activity for the organization. In marketing a lot of sub costless are performed. Marketing Includes the stateless Like Identification of demand, research, market segmentation, product development, launching of products, modification of products, deletion of products, product design, pricing, selling, publicity, public relations, adverting, distribution of products and services, consumer behavior, internal and international market coverage, branding, packaging, labeling and many other activities. It is very difficult to have clear idea regarding marketing activities.
For easy understanding and proper planning of activities, marketing activities are divided into our areas for products. These are product, pricing, promotion and placement. For services the groups include product, price, promotion, placement, people, process and physical evidence. In this paper the focus is on promotional activities of the products and services and mainly sales marketing communication strategies. Every company is interested to market its products or services to earn its profit. For this, awareness needs to be created among the customers through market promotion or communication.
Without creating awareness the customers would not come to know about the Meany’s existence in the markets, products and services produced and features of their products and services. The messages regarding the products, company, features of their products and services are to be communicated by using different marketing promotion and communication methods. 1. 2 Definitions of Marketing Communication Any business organization is a human group constituted for certain specified objectives. The achievement of these objectives largely depends upon the fact that all human efforts are properly co-ordinate and integrated.
Individuals in the organization performing different activities are functionally interrelated. The working and maintaining of this relationship is possible only through communication which provides for exchange of information. No business organization can work without communication network. It is an important human skill. The ability to communicate effectively is one of the major skills of a manager. According to a research conducted by Paul Vigor’s and C. Meyers, an executive, supervisor or manager spends about 70% of his time in communication. This face-to- face communication plays a vital role in managerial decision-making.
As Benjamin Balinese said, “If there is any short-cut of executive effectiveness, it is the mastery f the art of face-to-face communication. ” Communication is derived from the Latin word “communism”, literally meaning to make common, to share, to impart, convey or transmit. Communication is the process through which two or more persons come to exchange ideas and understanding among themselves. The following are the definitions of communication: a. “Communication is an intercourse by words, letters, symbols or messages; and is a way that one organization member shares meaning and understanding with another. (Kenton and O’Donnell, Bellows, Gilson and Drone) b. “Communication is the sum of all the things one person does when e wants to create understanding in the mind of another. It involves a systematic “The word communication describes the process of conveying messages (facts, ideas, attitudes and opinions) from one person to another so that they are understood. ” (Common, M. W. ) d. “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas opinions or emotion by two or more person. ” (Newman and Summer) e. Communication is a “process of meaningful interaction among human beings.
More specifically, it is the process by which meanings are perceived and understandings are reached among human beings. ” (Dry. Ms Farmland D. E. ) The above functions indicate the following characteristics about communication: It involves more than one person, it deals with transmission of both facts and feelings, it has various medium, it is continuous as business organization has continuity and its effectiveness to a very large extent depends upon the required understanding of what is being received and then responded.
The sharing of understanding is possible only when the person, for whom the message is meant understand it in the same sense in which the sender of the message wants him to understand. Thus communication involves something more than mere transmission of usage and physical receipt thereof. The correct interpretation and understanding of the message is important from the point of view of organizational efficiency. As such, the greater the degree of understanding present in the communication, the more is the possibility that human action will proceed in the direction of achieving organizational objectives. 1. Overview of Marketing Communication Marketing communications are the means by which firms attempt to inform, persuade, and remind consumers-??directly or indirectly-??about the products and brands they sell. In a sense, marketing communications represent the voice of the many and its brands; they are a means by which the firm can establish a dialogue and build relationships with consumers. By strengthening customer loyalty, marketing communications can contribute to customer equity. Marketing communications also work for consumers when they show how and why a product is used, by whom, where, and when.
Consumers can learn who makes the product and what the company and brand stand for, and they can get an incentive for trial or use. Marketing communications allow companies to link their brands to other people, places, events, brands, experiences, feelings, and things. They can contribute to brand equity-??by establishing the brand in memory and creating a brand image-??as well as drive sales and even affect shareholder value. The word promotion is also used specifically to refer to a particular activity that is intended to promote the business, product or service.
It is a method is used for getting people to create awareness among people about products or services being offered by the company. Advertising, public relations, point-of-sale displays, and word-of-mouth promotion are all traditional ways for promotion. Promotion is the products or services. The chiffon a promotional strategy will be dependent upon objectives, type of offers, budget, and availability of said promotional vehicle. The other concept used for promotion is called marketing communication. When any communication is given in the market with the help of any media is called marketing communication.
Communication is the process of sharing of messages, ideas; information between two or more parties. The communication given by the company relating to the business, products and services in the markets for customers or users directly or indirectly is called marketing communication. The communication in the market is given with the help of advertising. Those who use advertising, branding, direct marketing, packaging, promotion, publicity, sponsorship, public relations, sales, sales promotion and online marketing are termed marketing communicators or marketing communication managers.
The marketing messages may be with two objectives. First one is to communicate something regarding their products or services. The objective is to promote their products or services. The focus is on the products, features, benefits, price, place for purchasing and some comparison with others. It is different from corporate communication where the focus is on the company itself. Marketing communications is primarily concerned with demand generation, product/produce/service positioning while corporate communications deal with issue management, mergers and acquisitions, litigation etc.
The scope of first type of communication is limited where as the scope of corporate communication is wider. The target group for which the communications are given differs. Integrated marketing communications is a simple concept. It ensures that all forms of communications and messages are carefully linked together. Integrated marketing communications means integrating all the promotional tools, so that they work together in harmony. Promotion is one of the As in the marketing mix. Promotions have own mix of communications tools.
All of these communications tools work better if they work together in harmony rather than in isolation. Their sum is greater than their parts providing they speak consistently with one voice all the time. The effectiveness of communication increased when they are integrated horizontal, vertical, internal, external and data integration. Horizontal integration occurs when marketing mix is related with other business unction such as production, finance, distribution and communications and work together and make sure that their decisions and actions send messages to customers.
While different departments such as sales, direct mail and advertising can help each other through data integration. This requires a marketing information system which collects and shares relevant data across different departments. Objectives must support the higher level corporate plan and objectives for moving towards the corporate missions. Meanwhile Internal Integration requires internal marketing keeping all staff informed and motivated about any new placements from new advertisements, to new corporate identities, new service standards, new strategic partners and so on.
The external agencies for adverting and public relations should be integrated so that they work together to serve the purposes of communication. 1. 4 Importance of Effective Communication Communication is passing of information and understanding among different members of an enterprise and is of fundamental importance to all functions of management, since the performance of all managerial functions involves exchange of correct and meaningful information. Moreover, every act of immunization influences the organization in one way or another. Communication is the life blood of an organization and is vital for its survival.
In fact, an organization cannot exist without effective communication. In the words of J. M. Black, “sound communication is a master key to a company’s success. ” Thus, it can be said that an effective and sound communication has the following features. A. It facilitates effective planning: Sound planning requires participation of all those who are concerned with decision-making process and involves interaction and exchange of ideas, thoughts, opinions and views among them. Again, the plan cannot e effective and correct policies cannot be framed unless correct information and data are available.
Moreover the decisions made and policies framed by the management need to be covered to the subordinates for their compliances. All these activities involve and require effective communication; otherwise they cannot be performed successfully and effectively. The framing off plan and its successful implementation depends on sound and effective communication. B. Basis for decision-making: Proper decision-making depends on availability of right and reliable information and data, identification of real problem and consideration of Ross and cons of various courses of action available.
This also involves interaction among the members of the organization. It is through communication that the right information is available and other things can be considered for arriving at appropriate decisions. Communication plays an important role in decision- making process. C. Basis of coordination: In order to accomplish enterprise objectives, efforts of all the members need to be coordinated and integrated. It is through communication that this purpose can be achieved. It requires communication both downwards and upwards or even horizontally.
Thus effective immunization ensures coordination among different limbs of the organization and subordinate relationship: An effective communication facilitates interaction among different members of the organization, results in clear understanding of the problems and issues involved and helps in finding the best way to get the work done to fulfill both individual and organizational goals. Thus communication helps in improving superior-subordinate relations by developing good human relations both formally and informally. E. Improves motivation and morale: A good communication is the foundation of high morale.
A good sound communication teen the members of the organization helps in developing better human relations, eliciting willing cooperation of all to work toward realizing the organization objectives and thus creating an environment suitable for all to work in. Good communication has a positive impact on employees’ morale. F. Helps in performing properly staffing function: Staffing function comprises recruiting, selecting, training and developing right type of persons for various positions. All these activities require exchange of lot of information sharing of views and experience.
It also involves coaching and guidance which are not possible without roper communication. G. Creates good industrial relations: Good communication leads to mutual understanding and helps in building better industrial relations between management and workers, thus making way for the growth and prosperity of the organization as a whole. H. Good communication leads to good public relations: Building good corporate image and keeping good and healthy relations with various agencies like the government, trade unions, customers, community and other agencies are important for the success of the enterprise.
It is only through communication that good public relations can be maintained with them. . Increases managerial efficiency: Communication is essential for quick and systematic performance of managerial functions. The management conveys through communication the goals and targets, issues instructions, allocates Jobs and responsibilities and looks after performance of subordinates. As a matter of fact communication lubricates the entire organization and keeps the organization at work. In modern days the skill of communication has become a very essential quality of successful management. . 5 Benefits of Marketing Communication Marketing communication is a very important activity in marketing department f the company. In every business nearly half of the time of mangers is used in communication only. It is very essential for coordinating the various activities being performed in the department and company. When the related activities are coordinated then only the tasks would be completed in time and more effectively. It may be related to all departments. Promotion, placement, people, physical evidence and process.
To work and get the objectives fulfilled as per the planning of the company the strong need for communication is felt so that effectiveness of marketing department can improve. The benefits of promotion or marketing communication are following: a. Helpful in Creating Awareness When communication is given to the customers, dealers and salesmen then it create the awareness among the target groups. Without communication the information are not known to them. Without knowledge of any thing the work or Job of any time cannot be performed. Before putting efforts for any activity the need for information is must.
This need is fulfilled by marketing communication. B. Gives Reminders It is through communication the information are repeated. It reminds to the customers, dealers, salesmen and other concerned person. Over a period of time if earlier communication is forgotten then it has to be repeated to remind. The communication is very essential to remind and follow up action of marketing department. C. Persuades Customers When communication is given in the market through advertisement regarding products or services repeatedly, it starts creating interest among them.
It would very difficult for the customers to avoid the communication given repeatedly. D. Boosts Sales and Profits When the advertising takes the message regarding the products, services and the company to the customers, they would buy the products. The buying may continue repeatedly in future also. The sales of the products and services would go high. That is the ultimate goal of the company. E. Develops Good Customers Relationship Through marketing communication the all relevant information of products or services or company is shared with the concerned parties.
The numbers of required information are given to them and these clarify doubts of them. This contributes in maintaining transparency in dealing of the company. Finally, it leads to maintain good customers’ relationship. Through communication the customers, retailers, wholesalers, distributors, and sales en are informed regarding their products, their features, benefits and weaknesses clearly. Whenever doubts are there then they contact to the concerned managers in the company. Through information regarding products or services and good customers’ relationship the reputation of the company would improve definitely. G.
Contributes in Improving Overall Effectiveness Through proper and timely communication in the markets the effectiveness of every employee, manager, team, department and company as a whole would improve. The communication gap would not be created at all. All parties would work very well without any difficulty. It would avoid extra efforts, time, work stress and efforts. The operating cost would decrease. Finally the total operating cost due to proper communication would go down. H. Company Gets Competitive Edge With the help of proper marketing communication the customers, dealers, salesmen and all concerned parties are working properly.
This leads to satisfaction of all of them. The company enjoys a good reputation in the market. The market share of the company improves. The company takes lead in the market. It provides a competitive edge to the company over other competitors. In addition of above mentioned infinite of marketing communication there may be many more benefits. These benefits may be direct or indirect. In the long run the loyalty of customers towards the company develops. This advantage can be cashed for a long time without investment further.
With a bond of loyalty with customers the company can protect them from the inevitable onslaught of competition. The ability to keep a customer for life is a powerful competitive advantage. II. MARKETING COMMUNICATION PROCESS Communication has been defined as a process. The process is a concept of changing rather than static existence. The relationship events are seen as dynamic, continuous ND flexible and are structured only in a relative sense. Communication process as a whole is a continuous and dynamic interaction of variables both affecting and being affected by variables.
Marketers should understand the fundamental elements of effective communications processes. The following two models are useful in understanding of communication: a macro model of communications and micro model consumer responses. 2. 1 Macro model of Communications Process The macro model has nine factors in effective communication as shown in the Figure represent the major tools-??message and media. Four represent major immunization functions-??encoding, decoding, response, and feedback. The last element in the system is noise, random and competing messages that may interfere with the intended communication.
Senders must know what message they want to reach audiences and what responses they want to get. They must encode their messages so the target audience can decode them. They must transmit the message through media that reach the target audience and develop feedback channels to monitor the responses. The more the sender’s field of experience overlaps that of the receiver, the more effective the message is likely to be. Note that selective attention, distortion, and retention processes may be operating during communication. Figure 1: Element in the Communications Process 1 .
Sender: The person, who intends to make contact with objective of passing information and ideas to other persons, is known as sender. In market the advertisement given by the sponsor is called sender. 2. Ideas: This is the subject matter of communication. This might be an opinion, attitude, feelings, views, order or suggestions, etc. The presentation of ideas regarding features, benefits and functions of products and services in an advertising. 3. Encoding: Since ideas in immunization are intangible and their transmission requires the use of certain symbols such as words, actions or pictures.
Conversion of the subject matter into these symbols is called process of encoding. The message in a particular language is an example of encoding. 4. Media or Channel: When message is sent through TV, radio, newspapers, magazines etc is called media or channel. The message cannot be transmitted of its own so it has to take help of media. As per requirement of the target group the media is selected. 5. Receiver: It is the party for whom the message is meant. Receiver receives the message transmitted by sender. Though a particular medium the message is received at the other end by the receiver. . Decoding: After receiving the message, it is converted into simple language so that it can be understood. Without decoding the meaning may not be conveyed to the parties properly. 7. Feedback: Feedback is the process of ensuring that the receiver has received understood the message. It is the conformation of the message that is understood. When the reply from the party has been received then it is called feedback. It is very important element of the communication process 8. Noise: During communication process when there is assistance, it is called noise.
The noise reduces the effectiveness of the may be external or in channel itself. The best thing is that it should be within control only. 2. 2 Micro model of Consumer Responses Micro models of marketing communications concentrate on consumers’ specific responses to communications. Figure 2 summarizes four classic response hierarchy models. All these models assume the buyer passes through cognitive, affective, and behavioral stages, in that order. This “learn-feel-do” sequence is appropriate when the audience has high involvement with a product category perceived to have high fermentation, such as an automobile or house.