Master of Public policy and governance Political governance seminar Proof. Helmut Wilkes Abstract Discussion about democracy in the Islamic countries is hotly debated topic; usually the experts and observers argue from rational standard points; where Islamic factions debate from an religious believers and Islamic traditions ;that left a gab and misunderstanding of democracy and the democratic process from Muslims people who attached to the old fashion speeches of Islamic-face political groups such as
Hams and Islamic brotherhood, and misconception of Islamic rules as a political system from by the western observers , politician or academics. In this paper will examine the standpoints of Islam from democracy ,and if Islam an obstacle to demagnification paving examples and instances from the history and the current political groups masked by Islamic color -Is It possible that Islamic Shari (Islamic rules) can co-exalts side by side with democracy In this paper, I will use Palestine, and Hams (Islamic resistance movement) as an example of demagnification process and possible success, or failure.
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I . Introduction It is impossible for the Arabic -Islamic ongoing denote to go ahead without answering many core questions concerning the current political transformation In the area; the first, Is there a real danger threats transformation toward democracy? Or any transformation ahead democratic systems will lead surely for an Islamic regime and close the door towards democratic transformation? Or a democratic transformation without involving the Islamic groups, and ensure the individual rights? Simultaneously, we should ask the following question which western countries usually ask, Could we consider the revealed violent against West by some Islamic- extremist group, lead west to adopt and support the agenda of the current authoritarian, undemocratic regimes In the Islamic world?
It Is not easy to find an answer to such hot and tricky questions without digging on the historical facts, and tracking the development of events in the Islamic world and link it to the colonel of Muslim world by the west. I Page 1 The fear that the exist Islamic groups could undermine any possibility of a demagnification or emergence of a democratic system In the Arabic countries and they have the power to do so ( Burglar Gallous . T is worthy to say that the emergence of the extremist is a consequences of the authoritarian and dictatorships in the region, where middle class people ,and persecuted groups to join the extremists groups which derive their inhaling and inspirations from religious believes to defense themselves ; those people or groups could derive their believes from other sources depending on time and place Like nationalists , Marxist ,and toners.
For a long time , Islam NAS Eden uses Tort a political purposes Tort centuries ,and consequently , it affected a various aspects of Muslims life (Sad ABA Kali , The Islamic world need secularism)2 , but the question of Islam and necromancy ,and Islam and secularism have been discussed in a way that imply the antidemocratic streak of Islam, hence it becomes more important to west and western nations to gain more knowledge ” unbiased” about Islam and how it perceive it .
There is one Curran , one Prophet for Muslims , but there are many different doctrine and groups , that interpret Curran in a different ways , and that create a rift between Mulish society , the different questions have been answered in many different ways in recent decades ,and the answers sometimes led to extreme violence, turmoil, revolutions, and wars ; “Within the Muslim world their has been ND continues to be an internal rift ,an often violent confrontation among sects ,ideologies and interpretations of message of Islam”(Bengali Bout)3.
Discussion about the democracy in Islamic countries ,and specially in Arabic countries often include the attention of men and women regarding political orientation, in particular when questions raised about the weather popular attitudes constitute an obstacle to demagnification , possibly because of the religious traditions that predominate in most Arabic countries inhibit by the emergence of political democratic culture.
Actually, Citizens of Arabic countries do not understand he real relationship between democracy and political system, or between Islam and secularism; according to Panorama center for democracy in Palestinian territories , the number of people who can give a basic definition of democracy are less than 30% ,and most of survey participant from ordinary people see democracy as a 1 Burnham ,Gallous , Does Islamic groups form an obstacle for demonstration process (in Arabic) , 2007 ,Muslim on line. Sad ABA Kali , The Islamic world need secularism , 2007. 3 Bengali Bout , Reconciliation , Islam , Democracy ,and the west , 2007 (P 12). Page 2 homonym of elections, Omar Cash states in his study about Islamic democracy that ” Muslims have never sought to understand the nature of links between Islam and other systems of government as much as they have done with that of democracy and Islam” , but on ground the indicators are so different , why ? II . Political governance in Islam : Historical facts .
In order to understand the opinions of Islam to democracy , and single out the position of Islam from different political systems, or political governance and regimes and see which is the closest to the current democratic political system , we will find UT that , Islamic theology have no single comprehensive list of political governance theories or political systems , rather , it has a guidelines and main principles that very relevant to political governance .
The Quern only mentioned a principles that can serve as mall rules , out not tout ten structure AT It,ten DSSSL moral values concerning political governance in Quern airlifted to two main concepts , the first is justice and secondly consultation. Such verses of Justice are : “Allah commands you to give back the trusts to their rightfulness, and when you judge between people, Judge with fairness. Surely, excellences the counsel which Allah gives you. Allah is He who hears and observes Lanes (The women). O believers! Be steadfast for the sake of Allah and bear true witness and let not the enmity of a people incite you to do injustice; do Justice; that is nearer to piety. Fear Allah, surely Allah is fully aware of all your actions”. /Alameda (The table) “Allah commands doing Justice, doing good to others, and giving to near relatives, and He forbids indecency, wickedness, and rebellion: He admonishes you so that you may take heed”. /Ulnae (Bees).
On consultation ,Quern tells : Answer the call of their Lord, establish Salsa, conduct their affairs with mutual consultation, spend out of the sustenance which We have given them, and when they are oppressed, help and defend themselves”. /Al Sahara (Consultation) “Allah was well pleased with the believers when they swore allegiance to you under the tree. He knew what was in their hearts, so He sent down tranquility upon them and He rewarded them with a speedy AH Fatal (The victory) 4 Islamic theology , is Quern ,and the Saunas (deeds of prophet Mohammed [Peace upon him] ), there is many books for the speeches of the prophet (Hath).
Page 3 “Surely those who swore allegiance to you O Prophet, indeed swore allegiance to Allah Himself. The Hand of Allah was above their hands. Now, the one who will break his pledge, will break it at his own peril, and the one who will keep his pledge that he has made with Allah, shall soon be given a great reward by (The victory) More over, Quern often make references to the ancient ages and systems such as Salmons and David , but mostly focus on the behavior of societies concerning rulers and Justice among the people , rather than the structure of politics itself .
Quern tells that the transgression of societies and injustice was a ground for their destruction by God , there is also a verses that praise David and Salmon by God due to their Justly,compassionately acts and good governance towards their people . Likewise, the Saunas [deeds] of prophet Mohammed [Peace upon him] does not touch upon the organizational structure of political governance in Islam , but he states advices and rules geared to the rulers regarding Justice , compassion , mercy ,and obedience to the God.
Given that Islam (Quern and Sauna) did not defined a clear governance structure , Muslims left to establish their own organizational structure in matters of politics , time , and social conditions of the territory addition to the preference of the rulers ; That’s simply reflected after the tenant AT proponent Anemone Ipecac upon nil] (AAU Baker , Omar , All ottoman , the caliphate system established on the De-facto will , and the companion of the prophet rather than Islamic theology . Spite the previous facts , Muslims have been influenced by other societies and existed political system specifically institutions establishment . The government and institutions of Islamic states during the reign of Mayday , Basics , Useless , Ottoman mostly rested in Arab ,Persian and Turkish political customs of the prelatic period ,as well as in Byzantine institutions . When Mayday state was established , the governance system transformed from caliphate system that prevalent during the four caliphate to the sultana system which was imported from Iran . Ring the reign from Mayday to Ottoman , the main interest to Muslim society was a collective issues , that more relevant to abusing of people according to the Islamic rules and principles ; “The subjects in Muslim societies were, room the time of the Maydays up to the Ottomans, on the whole perceived by their states simply as tax-paying “herds” (non-individual crowds). This idea 5 Alter , the four caliphate , 1994. Page 4 does not find any Justification from the original sources of Islam, but instead originates from Oriental traditions”6.
Setting up institutions and entering laws under the influence of other societies , did not seems to Muslims at the time as deviation from Islam , needless to say that religion cannot maintain its purity forever , and religion is a separate question from culture and society . Religion usually gives its usage from a specific culture environment, and is expressed by the means of that culture. By nature, Islam did not close itself to human contribution; Islam that owned the hearts and minds of thousand during its first decade, Prophet Mohammed began an appeal of human reason.
Before assigning one of his companions for governorship , the prophet wanted as to how he planned to solve the possible problems which he may encounter on his place of tenure . His answer , approved by the prophet set precedent for the future rulers ” I will try to resolve them on the basis of Quern , sauna and my own opinion “7. This imply that Muslims have a wide range of freedom as the rulers are concerned, this freedom is not limited to the rulers , but also to the cardinals and the wise people and Jurisprudence. The Islamic law “Fish” firmly can be conducted by “Jam”8 and “Jihad”9 and it bears a great significance in Islamic.
The social project which prophet Mohammed embarked in Medina around “Medina Agreement” , was determined by historical conditions rather than religious orders ;And the political system Muslims introduced in Medina was not the model that rooted in Islam , it was a necessary sociological need promoted by conditions , AC Tanat Muslims ruling proper T n RSI II e time conclaves to De memoir AT numerical movement and could at anytime be surrounded and take their life , so they organize themselves in a social structure to protect their lives ,and that’s not only during period of prophet life , but also after his life . He same what happened ,when prophet died , the caliphate system was launched , not by the order of Islam , but as the conditions they experienced that time , and other reasons that promoted ABA Baker to be the first caliphate and later on the other 3 caliphate ;After the extension f Islamic state , the system was influenced ,under geographical and contacts with other people , such as 67 Emmer Kaka , theoretical approach of Islam and democracy ,2003.
Different , The path of the prophet Mohammed , series (1950 … 2004). 8 The consensus of Muslims 9 Creative interpretation of law 10 Fish lacuna , 1977 IPPP Page 5 Muhammad was influenced by Byzantines 1 ,and Bass’s was influenced by Iran , where religion occupied a portion of the state orders since Iran was affected by religion more than Basis. The caliph in Muslim societies, unlike Caesar Pope introduced by he Catholic Church, never acted as the holder of political and religious authority.
Far from it, the caliph was not entrusted with the task of enacting norms of a religious character, neither was he given a religious title. He merely regulated matters relating to the governance of the Muslim society. It was the Islamic scholars (llama) who interpreted religious norms at the level of faith, practice and conduct. Therefore, it wouldn’t be wrong to assert that the caliphate system displayed a secular character. What is more, considering that the caliph was given an extensive discretion for the enactment of laws, the validity of this view is reinforced.
The caliphate in Islam, in representing the general will of the community of believers (amah), served to promote their interests rather than legitimate the power of the governing elite. The caliphate performed tasks like supervising the social harmony and security inside, and reinforce the solidarity of society against possible attacks from outside. The caliphate, in the early years, coincided with the general will of society. The powers and authority wielded by the Caliph during the Four Calais’ period directly emanated, ether like contemporary democracies, from the consent of the people.
To put it differently, the Caliph did not locate the source of his power or authority in God or in any other entity. Once the Caliph ABA Baker said: “Obey my orders so long as I obey you, if I ever deviate from the right path, correct me by your swords. ” When Omar was elected as the new caliph, one of the companions of the Prophet said to him: “Whatever the Caliph takes from the people, he takes it by law, and spends it by law. The king, by contrast, oppresses his people, and takes from a section of society, and bends it for the benefit of a section of society’.
During the Four Caliphs’ period, the scalp’s Truculently consult EAI Muslims as well as non-Muslims win II o eve along Muslims . Ill . Muslim democratic principles Indeed, many in the predominantly secular world of western democracies expect the Muslim World, which, with no doubt, is still lagging behind the Western World in terms 1112 Emmer L. Barman, “Small importunately T”kilt eve Mјsloganeering #riling Missiles” 1954. Bazaar Raman, “The Principle of Sahara and the Role of the Amah in Islam,” American Journal of Islamic Studies, 1 (1984), up. 9. Page 6 of its political development, to fully undergo the colonization process experienced in the West in the past few centuries if it is to achieve a successful demagnification process 3. The expectation that the development of Muslim World political systems will imitate or copycat the development of Western political systems simply ignores important socio-cultural historical facts. This perception of the situation is too narrow-minded and is sometimes perceived as similar to the colonial attitude of “civilizing” the “barbaric” Muslim populations.
Muslims believe that Islam is not only a elision guiding personal aspects of faith and belief, but a way of life, as well as a system of thought that informs and guides their social system. It is worth mentioning here that Muslims believe as well that Western political and socio-economic exclusive norms concept for human fulfillment and happiness. Concepts are not its the own Islam possesses of interdependent economic and political liberty, together with an integrated “moral philosophy of morality and spirituality.
This political and socio-economic addressed so far only partially and inadequately. Philosophy’ of Islam and especially the economic thought at the core, however, has en It is worth mentioning here that a comprehensive Islamic economic theory of political economy is needed more than ever before to address the apparent fears of some Western governments about losing access to vital sources of energy – which is the real reason behind their support of authoritarian regimes. What Islamic movements believe are the two major principles basic to Western democracies.
The first principle is that the will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of the government,and the second principle of separation of the Legislative, Executive and Judiciary powers, with the independence of the media. Basically, people have been slang winter ten laws AT ten Lana rest on ten consent AT ten people, I. E. Now could be resolved the problem of combining the concept of democratic government with the concept of laws which embody the Will of God. 14. Aziza Y. Al Hubris excellent paper 801 5 on Islam and the concept of democracy.
She draw out good conclusion of the section devoted to the study of the “Compatibility of Divine Law with a Democratic Form of Government”, that: “… Islamic laws rest 1314 Ankara Haddam , the Algerian Islamic movement ,2008. The same source above 15 “Islamic Constitutionalism and the concept of Democracy’, by Professor Aziza Y. Al- Hubris of the T. C. Williams School of Law, University of Richmond. Page 7 their legality on the consent of the people in the same sense that the United States laws rest their legality on the consent of the American people. “16. IV.
Relation of religion and the state in Islamic The question of AH Yakima (Governance) or the Divine Law expresses genuine concerns regarding the relation between the religion and the state in a non- secularists but yet democratic form of government. One major difference between he Muslim World and the Western World is in the relation of religion with the state. Indeed, theocracy as experienced in the west has no place in the Muslim World because in Islam there is no clergy, no such group of individuals could claim to have been designated by God to speak on behalf of the religion.
Every learned Muslim has the right to engage in religious interpretation or Jihad. For this reason, all attempt to manipulate Islam for political purposes were doomed. Through out history, political regimes in Muslim countries, including the colonial ones, tried repeatedly, without success however, to extend their domination to all religious leaders in order to develop and control a single centrally organized religious institution. While some were cooped by the ruling regimes, the majority of Muslim religious Scholars throughout history stood up against such attempts.
This fact has cast these independent Muslim religious Scholars and their movements, as role models in the fight against despotism or foreign occupation. V. Islam and Liberalism Islam primarily addresses the the human being individually ,and the entire message of Quern is inviting people to think and reason in order to know what is right from hat is ring. Locals aim at monopolizing the human being to realize the existence of God through the signs of nature and Quern is made to address each person individually to be accountable for God hereafter. N Islam there is no third party or institution between the God and individual , the relationship is direct between God and Uninominal 1 ; All this suggests that Islam does not speak to supra-human collective entities, however, it places “human being” at the center of See the instructive reference on the subject, “Economic Doctrines of Islam,” Refrain LU Has, 1996, ITT, Virginia, USA. 7 This title and all content of this section , do not hereby unnecessary represent my own opinion , but the references and the Islamic movements. 18 Saint Augustine, The City of God,trans.
Marcus Dodos (New York: Modern Library, 1994). 16 Page 8 societies. In Islam, the basic rights are linked invalidly as individual rights , not as a collective rights, that’s mean Islam gives individuals their rights as human being . Thus the relationship between human beings and God ,are defined as the status of “Servant” and “Representatives” of God . “When your Lord said to the angels: I am going to place vicegerent on earth. They said: “Will You place there one who will make mischief and shed blood while we sing Your praises and glorify Your name? ” Allah said: “l know what you know not. 20 Islam give upon human beings ,are almost the same (in principles) as liberalism envisioned ;LULAS guarantee human rights to life , property ,protection ,freedom and others. The social construction of democracy as it is known based on the liberalism which centralist individual in social and political life not only that , but also ,make human rights as publicly and privately located ,from the above could conclude the throng similarities between Islam and Liberalism in this issue , where Islam mentioned human being as the ” pearl of the creations” .
Likewise, there is powerful resemblance between Islamic and liberal approaches to property and inheritance. Both Islam and liberal thought sanctify property rights not less than the right to life and regard it as inviolable Islam has a high regard for private sphere, which is an extension of the respect for property. In Islam, individuals are allowed to perform all sorts of activities in their property, including their houses, provided that they do not infringe on the rights of others.
Liberal democracies in the modern world allow for extensive liberties for individuals in their private sphere, which is outside the common values about the public sphere. So long as the rights of others are not abridged, individuals are totally free in their private life. Equity in Islam have the same meaning as Liberalism hold , hence Islam abolish the hierarchy between human being ,and held them under equal status and granted them equal rights , there is no difference between ruler and the ruled , and no distinction between unman Dealing at all ,Len any aspects AT Tie Ana all are account Ole to ten law AT r the law of Islam.
The most fundamental characteristic of democracy, hinging on liberal values, is the fact that this is a contract-based system. The principle of reciprocity and consent, prevailing 19 20 Omar Cash , Islam and Democracy ,2007. Quern Karri , Library , (the cow) verse 30. 21 The same reference No. 19 22 The Constitution of Liberty (London and Henley: Rutledge and Egan Paul, 1976). Page 9 both in the realm of politics and economics, are the most indispensable attribute of liberal democracies.
The notion of contract takes on a deeper meaning and a more elaborate function in Islam. Islam organizes all aspects of life on the basis of contracts ranging from the relationship of the individual with God to the relationship of individuals with each other. From the moment the individual enters Islam, s/he makes a mutual contract with God. In many parts of the Quern, God promises blessings and benefactions in the hereafter for human beings in return for their choice of the right course of action in this world.
Therefore, individuals know of the consequences of each of their action in the hereafter. The Quern also envisions that Muslims should regulate their relations on the basis of a contract. This principle also applies to their relationship with the rulers. The principle of consultation, which is the defining characteristic of governance, plays an overwhelming role in the establishment of a political structure.
There is no doubt that, the system which best translates into reality the basic principles which Islam admonishes as regards political governance, is a democratic system which institutionalizes political life, founded on contract, through elections. The contract in Islam begins with an oath of allegiance (beat) to the ruler. This oath implies the conditional submission of the led to the authority of the ruler. Its principles are explicitly laid down in the verses of the Quern, in the words and deeds of the Prophet, as well as in the Jurisprudence of Islamic scholars VI.
Islam, democracy and politics There is a strong connection between religion and politics in Muslims world ,and Particularly in Arab world ,reflecting Salami’s character as a religion of laws that protecting individuality and the social structure of the society. Thus ,LULAS play a role in shaping the political culture in Muslim country ,and Arabic countries not able to escape completely from Salami’s overarching . This intersection between culture of politics , politics and religion is more pervasive than any other countries.
Beside that ,LULAS has influence in the Arabic culture and political life has increased the last century for different reasons , the most important is Palestine occupation and colonization in different Islamic countries ; firstly, establishment of groups , welfare movements , organizations , charity association , financial institutions that belong to ten Islamic groups nave emerged ,lanker to a snare statement tout personal itty ,which we could observe it 23 24 Multiple sources , International Journal of Islamic studies , New Turkey website ,and other Arabic sources.