One business area where environmental issues have received a great deal of discussion in the popular and professional press is marketing. Terms like “Green Marketing” and “Environmental Marketing” appear frequently in the popular press. Many governments around the world have become so concerned about green marketing activities that they have attempted to regulate them. One of the biggest problems with the green marketing area is that there has been little attempt to academically examine environmental or green marketing.
This paper attempts 1) To introduce the terms and concepts of green marketing. ) To discuss why going green is important. 3) To know why the manufacturers and marketers launch CEO-friendly products. 4) To examine some of the reason that organizations are adopting a green marketing philosophy. 5) To mention some of the problems with green marketing. GREEN MARKETING:- The concept of green marketing Is the business practice that considers consumers concerns with regards to preservation and conservation of the natural environment (Codington, 1993).
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Green marketing that has been previously and primarily focused on the ecological context has been shifted to more sustainability Issues In the racketing efforts and main focus now Is In socio-economic and environmental context. Whereas, green market Is Identified as a part of market segments based on the greenness of the consumer (Charter et al. , 2002; Slatterns et al. , 1994). Therefore, green marketing Is now dealing with fair trade of socio-economical benefits as well as environmental responsibilities through the green business. F products that are presumed to be environmentally safe. Thus green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities, including product modification, changes to the production process, packaging changes, as well as modifying advertising. Green Marketing” refers to holistic marketing concept wherein the production, marketing consumption an disposal of products and services happen in a manner that is less detrimental to the environment with growing awareness about the implications of global warming, non-biodegradable solid waste, harmful impact of pollutants etc. Both marketers and consumers are becoming increasingly sensitive to the need for switch in to green products and services. While the shift to “green” may appear to be expensive in the short term, it will definitely prove to be indispensable and advantageous, cost-wise too, in the long run. CHARACTERISTICS OF GREEN PRODUCTS:- The products those are manufactured through green technology and that caused no environmental hazards are called green products. Promotion of green technology and green products is necessary for conservation of natural resources and sustainable development.
We can define green products by following measures: Products those are originally grown, Products those are recyclable, reusable and biodegradable, Products with natural ingredients, Products containing recycled contents, non-toxic chemical, Products contents under approved chemical, Products that do not harm or pollute the environment, Products that will not be tested on animals, Products that have CEO-friendly packaging I. E. Reusable, refillable containers etc.
IMPORTANCE OF GREEN MARKETING:- Green marketing offers business bottom line incentives and top line growth possibilities. While modification of business or production processes may involve start-up costs, it will save money in the long term. For example the cost of installing solar energy is an investment in future energy cost savings. Companies that develop new and improved products and services with environmental impacts in mind give homeless access to new markets, substantially increase profits and enjoy competitive advantages over those marketing non-environmentally responsible alternatives.
Need for Standardization:- It is found that only 5% of the marketing messages from “Green” campaigns are entirely true and there is a lack of standardization to authenticate these claims. There is no standardization currently in place to certify a product as organic. Unless some regulatory bodies are involved in providing the certifications there will not be any verifiable means. A standard quality control board needs to be in place for such babbling and licensing. New Concept:- Indian literate and urban consumer is getting more aware about the merits of Green products.
But it is still a new concept for the masses. The consumer needs to be educated and made aware of the environmental threats. The new green movements need to reach the masses and that will take a lot of time and effort. By Indian’s arrived heritage, Indian consumers do appreciate the importance of using natural and herbal beauty products. Indian consumer is exposed to healthy living lifestyles such as yoga and natural food consumption. In those aspects the consumer is already aware and will be inclined to accept the green products.
Patience and Perseverance:- The investors and corporate need to view the environment as a major long-term investment opportunity, the marketers need to look at the long-term benefits from this new green movement. It will require a lot of patience and no immediate results. Since it is a new concept and idea, it will have its own acceptance period. Avoiding Green Myopia:- The first rule of green marketing is focusing on customer benefits I. E. The primary reason why consumers buy certain products in the first place.
Do this right, and deviate consumers to switch brands or even pay a premium for the greener alternative. It is not going to help if a product is developed which is absolutely green in various aspects but does not pass the customer satisfaction criteria. This will lead to green myopia. Also if the green products are priced very high then again it will lose its market acceptability. OPPORTUNITY:- In India, around 25 percent of the consumers prefer environmental-friendly products and appears that all types of consumers, both individual and industrial are becoming more concerned and aware about the natural environment.
Nowadays, firms racketing goods with environmental characteristics have realized a competitive advantage over firms marketing non-environmentally responsible alternatives. There are numerous examples of firms who have strives to become more environmentally responsible, in an attempt to better satisfy their consumer needs. For Example the Surf Excel detergent which Saves water (advertised with the message??”do bucket pain orzo bacchanal”) and the energy-saving LEG consumer’s durables are examples of green marketing.
SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY:- Many firms are beginning to realize that they are members of the wider community ND therefore must behave in an environmentally responsible fashion. This translates into firms that believe they must achieve environmental objectives as well as profit related objectives. This results in environmental issues being integrated into the firm’s corporate culture. Firms in this situation can take two perspectives: 1) they can use the fact that they are environmentally responsible as a marketing tool; or 2) they can become responsible without promoting this fact.
The HASH became the world’s first bank to go carbon-neutral last year. Other examples include Coca-Cola, which has invested in various recycling activities. Walt Disney World in Florida, US, has an extensive waste management program and infrastructure in place. An example of a firm that does not promote its environmental initiative is Coca-Cola. They have invested large sums of money in various recycling activities, as well as having modified their packaging to minimize its environmental impact.
While being concerned about the environment, Coke has not used this concern as a marketing tool. Thus many consumers may not realize that Coke is a very environmentally committed organization. Another firm who is very environmentally responsible but goes not promote this fact, at least outside the organization, is Walt Disney World (WED). WED has an extensive waste management program and infrastructure in place, yet these facilities are not highlighted in their general tourist promotional activities.
Governmental regulations relating to environmental marketing are designed to protect consumers in several ways: 1) Reduce production of harmful goods or by- products; 2) Modify consumer and industry’s use and/or consumption of harmful goods; or 3) ensure that all types of consumers have the ability to evaluate the environmental composition of goods. These governmental regulations are designed to control the amount of hazardous wastes produced by firms.
Many by-products of production are controlled through the issuing of various environmental licenses, thus modifying organizational behavior. In some cases governments try to “induce” final consumers to become more responsible. For example, some governments have introduced voluntary curb-side recycling programs, making it easier for consumers to act responsibly. In other cases governments tax individuals who act in an irresponsible fashion. The Indian government too has developed a framework of legislations to educe the production of harmful goods and by products.
These reduce the industry’s production and consumers’ consumption of harmful goods, including those detrimental to the environment; for example, the ban of plastic bags in Iambi, prohibition of smoking in public areas, etc. COMPETITIVE PRESSURE: – Another major force in the environmental marketing area has been a firm’s desire to maintain its competitive position. In many cases, firms observe competitors promoting their environmental behaviors and attempt to emulate this behavior. It is only in some instances that this competitive pressure causes an entire industry to edify and thus reduce its detrimental environmental behavior.
For example, it could be argued that Xerox’s “Revive 100% Recycled paper” was introduced a few years ago in an attempt to address the introduction of recycled photocopier paper by other manufacturers. In another example when one tuna manufacture stopped using driftnets, the others followed suit. Many companies take up green marketing to maintain their competitive edge. The green marketing initiatives by niche companies such as Body Shop and Green & Black have prompted many mainline competitors to follow suit. COST REDUCTION:- Reduction of harmful waste may lead to substantial cost savings.
Sometimes, many firms develop symbiotic relationship whereby the waste generated by one company is used by another as a cost-effective raw material. For example, the fly ash generated by thermal power plants, which would otherwise contributed to a gigantic quantum of solid waste, is used to manufacture fly ash bricks for construction purposes. Certain firms use green marketing to address cost/profit related issues. 1 . The firms using green marketing must ensure that their activities are not misleading to consumers or industry, and do not breach any of the regulations or saws dealing with environmental marketing. . It is found that only 5% of the marketing messages from ??Green campaigns are There is no standardization to authenticate these claims. 3. Indian literate and urban consumer is getting more aware about the merits of Green products. But it is still a new concept for the masses. The consumer needs to be educated and made aware of the environmental threats. 4. The investors and corporate companies need to view the environment as a major long-term investment opportunity; the marketers need to look at the long-term benefits from this new green movement. It will require a lot of patience and no immediate results.