So entities which are involved in this regard need to have an open approach which has to be executed with the due consideration of the various stakeholders and the arioso other aspects which will be necessary for the destination marketing like destination market development – identifying target markets, analyzing motivational, factors of target visitor markets, developing a marketing plan with promotional goals, developing an advertising, campaign with a well-focused theme aimed at target markets, developing a media and public relations strategy, funding a marketing plan adequately, evaluating the effectiveness of a marketing plan and role of destination marketing and promotion organizations etc. This implementation is necessary in the present scenario as It has to deal with human aspect. When we train the human resources with motivational way It Is going to bring the most efficient manpower to handle the different situation. As we know that the tourism industry comes under the service segment we need to have the sufficient and efficient manpower to manage the destination.
This paper put light on the scope and need of the requirement for the adaptation of a specific technique that Is Destination Marketing and Its uses for the development of Tourism Industry. Defining a Tourism Destination 1. 1. 1 Introduction A local tourism destination is a physical space In which a tourist spends at least one overnight. It Includes tourism products such as support services and attractions and tourist resources within one days return travel time. It has physical and administrative boundaries defining its management, and images and perceptions defining its market competitiveness. Local destinations incorporate various stakeholders often Including a host community, and can nest and network to form larger destinations. Destinations could be on any scale, from a whole country (e. G.
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Australia a region (such as the Spanish ‘Costa’) or island (e. G. Bali), to a village, town or city, or a self-contained centre (e. G. Center Park or Disneyland). This document is Intended to be useful to destination managers within this range of scales: that said the optimum level for destination management In most countries Is below the national level. This session discusses destination marketing and its role in the visitor 1 OFF city, or a resort area. The visitor may apply various terms to define a destination whether it refers to one geographic area or a combination of several geographic areas. Regardless of how the term is applied, it is the consumer or visitor who defines a destination.
From the perspective of the visitor or consumer, a destination is received as having appealing attributes, features, attractions, and services that would encourage the potential visitor to choose a destination for a leisure or vacation trip or other travel purposes. The development of a destination marketing plan is usually the responsibility of a government tourism marketing and promotion organization and is based on a careful analysis of competition and market trends. Destination Market Development The process of destination marketing development involves a number of important steps which include the following: Identifying target markets Analyzing motivational factors of target visitor markets
Developing a marketing plan with promotional goals Developing an advertising campaign with a well-focused theme aimed at target markets Developing a media and public relations strategy Funding a marketing plan adequately Evaluating the effectiveness of a marketing plan Identifying Target Markets In identifying the target markets one of the key tasks is to conduct a competitive analysis that examines the destination with other competing destinations. The analysis includes a comparison of all of the factors and attributes which attract or appeal to visitors that would motivate them to choose the destination. These could include climate, natural scenery, and other elements that are part of a destination’s tourism products such as hotel accommodations, restaurants, historic sites, and other physical attractions. Other factors which affect visitors’ satisfaction and influence their decisions and choices include services, cleanliness, safety, and culture.
Market trends are also examined in a competitive analysis using information sources such as market trends research and current visitor data. Typically, these trends examine: Visitor trends including origin markets, length of stay, expenditure tatters, mode of transportation, and demographic profiles Major competitors, services and products offered postmistress, the competitive pricing structure, and the assessment of the success of competitors Industry trends such as transportation or new technologies Motivational Factors and Market Segmentation Another key component in the competitive analysis is market segmentation analysis. The segments of selected target markets need to be identified in order to focus the marketing efforts in the marketing plan.
Market segmentation is used to group people into categories based on demographic, geographic, cryptographic, and behavioral characteristics. These characteristics are used as a basis for tourism destination marketing and influence the type of tourism products which are developed and promoted by the destination. The destination must have a clear understanding of the destination’s tourism product to ensure that the visitors’ expectations are being met. The development of new products and services to attract visitors is a complex process because consumer needs and desires constantly change and competitors continually offer new or improved products.
In order for destinations to successfully develop their tourism products, many other aspects must also be considered in the development process, including branding, positioning, consumer perceptions, marketing mix, visitor expectations, and image. Consumer Perceptions, Attitudes, and Behavior It is commonly accepted that people change their minds and that, as a result, their tastes also change. As tastes change, travel patterns will also change. In order for the marketer to succeed, there are five main categories of consumer behavior which should be understood: Need recognition – the recognition that a need or want on the part of the visitor or consumer to purchase the product exists.
In the case of the visitor, it is the strong desire to visit a particular destination Information search – the way in which the consumer obtains information about the destination choices Evaluation of alternatives – a group of destinations the consumer considers acceptable options in the decision- making process Purchase and consumption – the mood of the consumer during product purchase and consumption, for example, the vacation package too particular destination Post-purchase evaluation – comparison of the consumer’s expectations to the actual product after the purchase is made or the travel is completed Marketing Mix Another basic concept in marketing is the marketing mix. The marketing mix is a combination of four basic elements an organization controls in order to satisfy or communicate with consumers. The concept of a marketing mix involves a number of variables which are interrelated and depend on each other to some extent.
For any market segment at a given point in time, the marketing mix usually involves at least four elements, sometimes called the four AS: Product – The unique combination of products and services Place – The manner in which the products and services are sold, including channels f distribution Promotion – The methods used to communicate with the markets Price – A pricing policy that satisfies not only the customers but meets profit objectives Positioning Positioning the product-service mix is a highly valuable tool for destinations, however this can be a difficult task to accomplish. Positioning involves careful consideration of the tourism product and the visitors’ experience and expectations. It is important that that the marketing organization positions the destination in the consumer’s mind, so that the visitor’s experience meets their expectations. In order to position a destination’s service mix successfully, a clearly perceived image must be established in the consumer’s mind regarding the benefits offered by the destination and how the destination’s product-service mix can be differentiated from other destinations.
The objective is to give the consumers positive image of the destination and is linked Branding is perhaps the most powerful marketing tool available to destination marketers confronted by product similarity where tourism products appear equal or lack differentiation to the consumer and to the competition. For many destinations, there are few differentiating factors for the facilities and services which are offered. Today many destinations can offer five-star resorts, hotels and attractions, claim a unique culture and heritage, and describe themselves as having the friendliest people and the most customer-focused tourism industry and service. Therefore, there is a critical need for destinations to create a unique identity and to differentiate themselves from their competitors.
Branding or establishing a brand identity attempts to promote a unique combination of the tourism product characteristics to appeal to the consumer. These characteristics are linked to the brand in the consumer’s mind and results from positioning. By creating a strong image for the consumer, the destination gains an advantage which is referred to as a brand advantage. Brand advantage is secured through communication that highlights the specific benefits of a product, creating an overall impression of a superior brand. The image the product creates in the consumer’s mind and how it is positioned are more important to the ultimate success of the product than its actual characteristics. Developing the Marketing Plan
Before any specific marketing activities are undertaken,it is crucial to complete a marketing plan. With increasing competition in the tourism industry as more destinations are developed, destinations with marketing plans will outperform those without plans. The marketing plans for tourism destinations are usually formulated by organizations such as a national tourism administration (ANTA), national tourism office (ONTO) or other government body, and sometimes by a cooperative public/ private association or private sector firm. No matter what organization does the marketing plan, they all face challenges. Most tourism organizations, for example, have limited budgets, and they have to market globally, competing with other destinations.
All marketing plans focus efforts on achieving the goals and objectives of the destination over the short and long-term and ensure that all key aspects of the marketing effort are included in formulating specific activities. Marketing plans may be strategic, operational, or include both components. Strategic plans are concerned primarily with long-term issues (three to five years), overall mission, goals and objectives. Operational plans focus on specific steps to be taken to reach the tragic targets within the short-term (usually one year). The marketing plan must support the destination’s overall strategic plan. The following outlines the essential parts off marketing plan. Mission – the guiding framework within which all decisions should be made.
Typically, mission statements are brief and define the scope of business for the destination Strategy – a plan that integrates a destination’s major goals, policies, and action plan Goals – broad statements of what the destination seeks to accomplish Objectives – refinement of the broad goals statement,stating; what will be accomplished, what is the timeshare, who is expansible for achieving the objective, and how the results will be evaluated Policies – the formal rules and guidelines that direct all of the actions a destination ROLE OF DESTINATION MARKETING AND PROMOTION ORGANIZATIONS Destination marketing and promotion organizations are established for the specific purpose of marketing destinations.
In most cases they are governmental or nonprofit private organizations which bring together local political, civic, business, and visitor industry representatives with the knowledge, skills and leadership abilities. The National Tourism Administration (ANTA), National Tourism Office (ONTO), other overpayment bodies at different political or administrative levels, and other public/ private organizations are responsible for developing an image that will position their destination in the marketplace as an attractive site for vacation, recreation, and business. They must coordinate these different elements, in order to attain a desired single image, to be presented to the prospective visitors. Tourism organizations usually work within a polyunsaturated.
It is important that the organization develop a leadership role within the community in order to be effective in the coordination and execution of its programs. Tourism organizations should be visible entities within a destination, drawing attention to what they are doing so that the community understands the significance of the visitor industry. Tourism organizations have other important responsibilities including working with meeting and group planners and providing key resources, information and assistance to planners. The tourism organization can provide vital contact names and local information, locate necessary facilities, and act as a convention management consultant to planners.
The tourism organization also recommends reliable sources for services and supplies, information n facilities and prices, assist planners with the securing of meeting rooms and hotel room commitments, and serves as the broker or liaison between the planner and the host destination and its resources. Tourism organizations also help visitors to their destinations through information centers and by responding to visitor inquiries. Tourism organizations can provide visitors with an array of information regarding hotels, restaurants, attractions, shopping, recreation, and entertainment opportunities, and essentially serves as a visitor’s one-stop shopping center for ideas and information.