Previously, specialization: producing what a region or a state had a comparative advantage in and utilizing the division of labor and capital (specialization of labor and capital) had accounted for the great majority of the productivity growth necessary to increase per capita income. However, according to economic historians Jeremy Attack and Peter Passel, “After 1815 much of the nation’s growth was generated by increased British demand for cotton and Midwestern settlement that created opportunities for regional specialization and trade. (Scott, 2001) Development of Environmental and Economic Issues Pollution It is obvious that American air pollution is a major problem due to the development Of economy and industry. The air pollution includes the transportation, combustion of fuels, which including generation of electricity, industry and miscellaneous other factors. Mostly, the above factors are the outcomes of industrial development such as automotive industry, heavy industry or the oil industry. These above factors can endanger not only the environment but also have negative effects on human health.
The emissions which are produced by cars or factories usually are harmful and toxic. A great amount of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and other toxic gases are produced based on economic expansion. For example, the study found that air pollution had made the growth of certain crops impossible in some of the foliage. Furthermore, pollution can cause a vicious circle to both sides. A 1972 study by the Stanford Research Institute estimated that American farmers lose 132 million dollars each year because of air-pollution impact on crops.
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Therefore, the influence is bilateral. Overly develop economic or industry will lead to destruction on both sides. The solution is to give up either environment preservation or economic development. Cities must endure financial loss to accomplish the desirable environment for humans. (Kelley, 1976) Waste Of Resources Many researchers believe that the world has entered the “Last Days” because of over population and consumption. The economic development causes resources to diminish and become exhausted. Too much consumption brings damage to nature and catastrophic pollution.
As humans consume more, less must be available for others. As economies expand, natural resources must be depleted; prices will rise and the environment will suffer. In the 1 9705, scientists already saw humans relationship to the environment as a zero-sum game; to farm, build houses, apartments or hospitals, even travel as a global citizen are bad for nature, bad for the environment, and thus end up exhausting resources. The global economy cannot grow indefinitely on a finite planet. For example, people are running out of nonrenewable resources such as oil.
Oil is the most fundamental resource of developing economics. Traveling, housing construction or even financial growth is based on those nonrenewable resources. Of course, economic growth will automatically lead to resources being drained. (Goofs, 2008) Population Throughout American history population growth and arbitration have been closely associated. Arbitration has speeded up since World War II. About seventy percent of all Americans now live in urban regions of over five hundred thousand population, or in the immediate environs thereof.
The total size and geographic concentration Of America’s population has enormous impact on resource and energy consumption, air, water, and nose pollution, waste disposal, and land over use. Since the average American’s standard of living depends on the use of energy and nonrenewable resources in large amounts, from both domestic and foreign sources, its of real moment from an environmental perspective that the population of the IIS will not stabilize for at least seventy years.
Few Americans are disturbed by their role as the globe’s champion polluters, a direct consequence of their life-style ND consumption patterns, both of which are difficult to change. Solution to Environmental vs… Economic Issues Green policies A Green policy is a written statement that clearly indicates the position and values of humans organization on environmental and sustainability issues. People all live in a world with finite resources and meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Green Policy will reduce the amount of waste generated by reusing and recycling. Green policies have these details of action plan under different headings such ways: minimize waste at source. ; Waste reduction – It is most effective to ; Purchasing – All purchasing decisions should take account of the environmental factors involved in production, use and disposal of the product. ; Energy and water saving – Energy production consumes valuable non-renewable resources and causes massive pollution. Transport – Government environment policy could aim to reduce the impact of vehicle emissions by encouraging the application of sustainable principles to traveling and arranging meetings such as promote public transport, cycling or walking as the preferred form Of transport for Taft and volunteers. (CSV’S Development Services, 2010) ; Green tax Taxes or charges can be both environmentally effective and economically efficient. (CEDED, 2008) waste reduction: In an environmentally sustainable economy, reusing and recycling industries will replace the garbage collection and disposal companies of today.
Reuse brings even more dramatic gains. Reuse will reflect the environmental advantages of reuse. Recycling is also a key to reducing land, air, and water pollution. Reduce food packaging can also reduce resource consumption. In addition to reusing and recycling metal, glass, and paper, a sustainable society also recycles nutrients. By systematically reduction of waste or recycling and reuse, it can be extended to use the earth’s resources and environmental protection. (Brown, L. R, 1 991) Purchasing: If there is only so much food, tree, oil, and other material to go around, the more people consume, the less must be available for others.
The earth economy cannot grow indefinitely on a finite planet. As populations increase and economies expand, natural resources must be wear and tear; prices will rise, and humanity – especially the poor and future generations at all income bevels ; will suffer. Human need to reduce the purchase. It solves the occurrence of depletion of natural resources. Energy and water saving: The United States is currently the largest single consumer of energy. The U. S. Department of Energy categorizes national energy use in four broad sectors: transportation, residential, commercial, and industrial. US Dept. Of Energy, 2006) Despite continuing improvements in energy efficiency, the US primary energy use is projected to grow by 54% between 2005 and 2010. Fossil fuels are expected to continue to control the energy mix. Increasing energy production and use will affect the stability of ecosystems, global climate and the health of current and future generations. Government policies will be critical to promote a lasting technology shift which steers the world onto a more sustainable energy path. To keep the costs of mitigation low while also stimulating innovation, policies will need to: 1.
Emphasis market-based instruments in the policy mix to establish a clear price on carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions and encourage mitigation where it is least-cost 2. Reverse growth in energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. 3. Encourage more efficient energy use and promote the supply of renewable and low-carbon energy sources. 4. Commercialism carbon capture and storage technologies to permit the environmentally acceptable use of coal and other fossil fuels. 5. Alter radically the way energy is produced and consumed.
Ultimately, the world will need to move away from carbon-intensive gas towards renewable and/or nuclear power. No one technology or fuel choice will dominate; a mix will be required. Greater deployment of cleaner tech analogies in this sector will also deliver a wide range Of other benefits, from energy security to environmental benefits. COED, 2008) Water resources are indispensable resources to mankind. Owing to the development of economics and growth of populations in recent years, the management of water resources is getting difficult to fulfill the future requirement and may have great impact to the society.
Act system of government is relatively important, therefore, the US Government must have a sound system to improve management of water resources. ( Lana, 2004) Transport: Efficient pricing requires not only the prices reflect all the environmental costs associated with transport, but also that these prices provide incentives o conserve existing transport capacity and to develop future environmentally-sustainable transport options. For example, in the case of fuel taxes, the people who reduce their fuel consumption the most will be these who derive the least benefit from fuel consumption.
Flexible mechanisms allow producers and consumers to make the choices that are best for them, and to meet environmental objectives in the Way that is least costly for them. Countries with low taxes on petrol and diesel (e. G. Canada and the US) tend to have much higher use of these products per unit of GAP produced than counties with higher taxes. On the other hand, countries with the high fuel taxes generally have higher fuel in efficiencies Japan is a slight exception – with high fuel efficiency, despite relatively low fuel taxes.
Green tax: Taxation is an efficient way to correct environment issues, and a powerful instrument for steering economies toward better environmental health. By taxing products and activities that pollute, deplete, or otherwise degrade natural systems, governments can ensure that environmental costs are taken into account in private decisions-whether to commute by car or bicycle, for example, or to generate electricity from coal or sunlight. If income or other taxes are reduced to compensate, leaving the total tax burden the same, both the economy and the environment can benefit.
Opinion polls show that a good share of the public thinks more should be spent on protecting the environment, but most people abhor the idea of higher taxes. By shifting the tax base away from income and toward environmentally damaging activities, governments can reflect new priorities without increasing taxes overall. Environmental taxes are appealing because they can help meet many goals efficiently. Each individual producer or consumer decides how to adjust to he higher costs.
A tax on air emissions, for instance, would lead some factory to add pollution controls, others to change their production processes, and still others to redesign products so as to generate less waste. In contrast to regulations, environmental taxes preserve the strengths of the market. In fact, they are economists call corrective taxes: they actually improve the function of the market by adjusting price to better reflect an activity’s real cost. A comprehensive green tax code would alter economic activity in many areas. It would place fees on carbon emissions from the burning of coal, oil ND natural gas, and thereby slow global warming.
It would penalize the use of originally materials, and thus encourage recycling and reuse. It might, among other things, charge for the generation of toxic waste, and so foster waste reduction and the development of safer products, and for emissions of air pollutants, thus curbing acid and respiratory illnesses. Conclusion All in all, disadvantageous effects of economic development on environment will damage this planet. In order to solve these troubles, government has responsibility to resolve these issues through green policies or example, recycling, energy and water saving transport and green tax.