Examine reasons for recent changes in patterns of World development. In the sass’s Africa seemed poised to take off developmentally speaking while S. America and especially Asia were seen with extreme pessimism. Since then patterns have been reversed; Asia led by economies such as India have Introduced new nomenclature such as newly and recently industrialist’s countries while S. America has followed close behind. Today it is Africa or more precisely Sub-Sahara Africa which has stagnated developmentally or In some cases even reversed In some countries.
This can be seen by looking at two countries – India and Uganda. In 1960 Uganda had a GAP/cap of $789 and a life expectancy of 44 years. India In comparison was $654 and 42 years; well behind. By 1990 Uganda was $661 and 48 years compared to $1137 and 58 years and by 2008 Uganda was $1164 and 53 years compared to Indian’s $2622 and 64 years. The reasons for these recent changes were clear; physical endowment which appeared so important in the sass’s and sass’s became far less important while economic factors increased in importance and political, social and cultural factors came to dominate.
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Those countries in Asia and S. America which came to stable government earlier; progressed far faster than those in Africa and Sub-Sahara Africa in particular. Back in the sass’s and sass’s most geographers agreed that the most important factors in controlling development were physical. Guided by Rosters and Friedman’s models this seemed most probable. However despite Asia having a wide range of natural hazards such as floods, earthquakes and droughts in at least equal measure to Sub-Sahara Africa and a far lower endowment of physical resources this region has surged ahead.
Compare for example Indian’s GAP/cap of $2622 with the Democratic Republic of the Congo with $300 per year. This is despite the Congo having the world’s largest endowment of hysterical resources with gold, diamonds, coolant and forest resources. However it has been discovered that physical resources on their own are not enough; it is the the global economic factors which prevail in the different regions which have the biggest impact. Economic factors are dominated by trade. Global trade is administered bat the W. T. O. Which is dominated by the QUAD nations (U. S. A. , Canada, E. O. ND Japan), they actively prevent the least developed nations from Improving developmentally by their often Illegal trading systems. Rich developed nations protect their markets using a rarity of measures such as tariffs, quotas and subsidies. The Impact of these can best be seen by looking at an example such as the Impacts of cotton subsidies on West Africa (these subsidies were declared Illegal by the W. T. O. In 2005 but still prevail). The U. S. A. Each year subsidies Its cotton producers by $4 billion. In West Africa some 10 million people earn their living through cotton production.
In countries such as Chad and Mali cotton makes up more that 10% of annual GAP and more than 60% of agricultural export earnings. In West Africa production costs are 38 cents per reduces the price on the open market to a third! Put in context; this one USA subsidy is more than the entire SAID budget for Africa and lowers the global cotton price by 25%. It is compounded by a Chinches subsidy of $1 billion and an EX. Subsidy of $1 billion (paid to Spain and Greece despite the EX. Admitting that without it the cotton costs in the EX. Would be three times cheaper! . Together these mean that Equatorial Africa earns $250 million less than it should from cotton production. Between 1998 and 2002 production rose by 14% while earnings decreased by 31%! These economic factors are a major reason for a lack of development in affected areas. Asia and S. America were less adversely affects due to their establishment of trading blocs which helped overcome barriers and fully take part in the globalizes economy. In much of Africa however this was held up by a lack of integration into the digital infrastructure.
Brandt predicted in 1980 that Africa would be left behind by the ‘digital divide’ and most countries of East/Southern Africa were only connected to the terrestrial broadband cable between 2007 and 2010. In 2009 to put 25 agents on the phone in Kenya for a month cost $17000 while in India it cost Just $600. Despite the impacts of economic factors however the biggest impacts on modern tatters of world development have been political, social and cultural. President Amusement of Uganda likened the advent of African independence as giving a six year old the keys to the gun and liquor cabinets and then being surprised at what happened next.
The biggest factors in Africa slipping behind developmentally has been political instability often underpinned by tribalism. In a country such as Botswana which has escaped these GAP/cap is over $14000 each year. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo which is still war torn and lacking stable government it is $300 per year. It is impossible to develop in a state of civil war; in the sass’s and sass’s in Uganda the dictators Did Main and Milton Boot killed between 500,000 and 800,000 people – the country went backwards.
The same happened in Rwanda in 1994 and is likely to happen in the South of Sudan after the referendum in January. In Durbar and in The Deem Rep of the Congo it has been compounded by the presence of warlords and corruption. Last year in Uganda Transparency International claims that half the governments budget ($950 million) went on corruption. 30% of health workers and 20% of teachers salaries go to people that do not exist. As if this aspect of Agenda’s political weakness was not bad enough it has led to the cancellation of structural relief.
In August 2010 the E. IS. Cancelled $3 billion of pledged aid to Uganda due to corruption – a massive impact on this country as it strives to improve the lives of its population. When examining the reasons why Asia and S. America managed to develop but most of Africa did not it is clear that the nature of politics and society are at the core of the issue. In Asia countries such as Vietnam and Cambodia emerged from war in the sass’s and sass’s and today are such big players in markets such as fee; that countries such as Uganda cannot compete with them.
The Asian tigers such as Taiwan have shown what can be done. Today even India is fast becoming the world’s third largest economy. In South America led by Mexico and Brazil the entire continent is moving forward. However in many African states this is not true and factors are no longer as important as good governance! This can be clearly seen in Zanzibar today. Economic factors can be overcome with the correct kind of political will and guidance. Simply put; first comes peace and stability, then comes trade and this leads to development.