The Issue was addressed with a field experiment: sociologists presented equally qualified applicants who differed only by race or ethnicity and made them apply to undress of entry-level positions In New York. Beyond the experimental estimates Pager, Bankbook’s and Western explore the processes by which delimitation occurs: examining the interactions between job seekers and employers to highlight the range of decisions that collectively reduce opportunities for minority candidates.
Overall, their findings indicate that employers significantly prefer white and Latino lob applicants, relative to equally qualified blacks (30. 1% and 25. 2% compared to 15. 2% respectively). The white tester’s racial advantage narrows substantially when criminal record was assigned to white participants only (17. % and 15. 4% compared to 13. 0% respectively). When analyzing how discrimination occurs on the level of interactions three categories stood out: categorical exclusion, shifting standards, and race-coded job channeling.
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Categorical exclusion is immediate or automatic rejection of black (or minority) applicant in favor of white applicant which occurs on the early stage of employment process. Second category of behavior, shifting standards, is when employers’ evaluations of applicants appear actively shaped or constructed thought a racial lens, with similar qualifications or deficits taking on varying relevance pending on an applicants’ race. Finally, a third category goes beyond hiring decision, focusing on the Job placement.
Race-based Job channeling represents a process by which minority applicants are steered toward particular Job types, often those characterized by greater physical demand and reduced customer contact. It Is argued that with globalization and normalization In a lesser-fairer capitalistic society racism is replaced with fair Darwinian-Like competition. This research complicates this commonplace assumption, showing how small businesses, who do to have hiring agencies and face less bureaucracy create a race-based discriminatory environment for a low-wage workers In the post-call right era.
Applying the Conflict Theory theoretical framework we can argue that as whites historically had privileges over other races In US they, as a group trying to malting this higher status/power through racial delimitation. Implications of such conclusion should lead to a more favorable attitude towards affirmative action of this research may help fight naturalization of racism, cultural racism, and especially minimization of racism in contemporary society.