Sex and Gender Dueling Dualism, Anne Sterling Maria athlete, Olympics, forgot sex certificate, failed sex test, kicked out, life fell apart 0 the power of sex in our society, when normality of things is questioned, causes challenges 1972 Sex vs..
Gender separation Sex: anatomically, physical attributes defined Gender: psychological transformation based on self gender identity, behavior expression Gender norms, expectations, opportunities Society of normalization, maintaining the “normal” No clear cut biological distinction that works in all settings 0 doctors use physical aspects of body to determine sex Nature (genes, hormones) vs.. Nurture (environment, society, learning) Natural assumption: gender as biological outcome of sex Mainstream understanding (TV, media, science literature 0 Egg and Sperm ideas) 2.
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Internationality Feminism is for Everybody, Verna SST. Denis Internationality: How racial positions, social and economic class, and sexual identity interact and intersect, gender vs.. Race oppression in black women’s lives, reinforcing inequality and social exclusion Aboriginal women critique of feminism 1. Irrelevant, racial and colonial 2. Assumes patriarchy is universal 0 historical references of Aboriginal women having high status and power in their society, positions of authority and autonomy 3.
Colonization 0 other women have not experiences this 4. Build on cultural traditions 0 rejecting community’s “ways” and challenging oppression is considered betrayal 5. Gender inequality not the most important oppressed first as Native women, colonization, racism 6. “Sameness” 0 do not want to be like men Verna SST. Denis argues back – it is relevant, did not always occupy high status Western Patriarchy influenced Aboriginals
Deepened inequality, entire world organized around principles of control, domination and competition Encourages men to seek security and status through control, dominate women to compensate for other men controlling them Being feminist does NOT mean you have to choose between gender and culture/nation Sisters in struggle – understanding social hierarchies in relation to gender, confront ways women dominate other women through sex, class and race, social Justice, 3. Transgender Transgender Rights, Risk Wilkins Transgender definition: state of one’s gender identity not matching one’s sex
Transsexual: cross sexes with bodies discrimination – using e-mail they communicate, form social networks, become political minority, advocacy focusing on hate crimes, access to hormones Embarrassment – sometimes advocacy not effective because embarrassed, society set norms regarding what is considered “embarrassing” Fitting into binary (bathrooms, prison) Identity with its own boundaries, hierarchies and norms – not considered transgender if one doesn’t want to take hormones or surgery Joining side when transforming – reinforcing position of privilege Feminism – does it consider rearranged discrimination? Do” gender – outcome of practice, not outcome of body 4. Disability Theory Giving Voice to Women with Disabilities, Anita Israelite and Karen Swartz Unemployment, earnings, work participation Male disabled still better off Feminism disregards disability – white middle-class women as norm, those who differ in regards to physical, sensory or mental status, or race, class, or ethnicity are left out Models of disability 1. Medical model Physical, sensory or mental differences from norm Defective member of society Within the individual Power, patriarchal-like dynamic to those not disabled Internalize medical identities and devices 2.
Social model Social structure as the problem, not the individual Distinction: Impairment: functional limitation due to physical, mental or sensory impairment Disability: physical and social barriers, limitation of opportunities in a normal life on an equal level Society failure to provide appropriate services for disabled, restrictions (Human Resource Center, not wheel chair accessible) Underestimating abilities, influencing behavior and expectations Sexuality of disabled women, exclusion from social and economic experiences Feminist critique 0 production of disability needs to be considered, need for understand individuals and differences for collection oppression of women Reinforcing stereotypes of dependent, passive and needy women Norms 0 devices/what you are feeling is not you, but someone’s images transferred to you Glasses 0 who constructs the norm? Able-bodied-news 5.
Chloe Cooley The Secret of Slavery in Canada, FAA Cooper First challenge to slavery in Upper Canada Enslaved women, manhandled, thrown on boat, screaming in resistance Prosecuted owner for disturbing peace Pushed for bill for immediate abolition of slavery in province 0 resistance, slaves necessary for economy Compromised 0 act preventing future introduction of slaves, children of slaves gaining freedom at 25, if children before that age, children will be free Significance: Declining slavery Opening for underground railroad 0 foreign slaves immediately free upon reaching Upper Canada, escaping slavery Resistance 0 importance (esp.. Women), started train for legislation 6.
Indian Act Regulating Native Identity by Gender, Bonito Lawrence Indian Act: Canadian federal law, governs status and reserves, regulate day-to-day, identify who qualifies as Indian in form of Indian status Indian act targeting women as responsible for spread of diseases, classified as prostitutes Gender discrimination Constant masculine terminology Women excluded from voting 0 voice was unheard, crucial for survival of society Status depends on Indian descent or marriage to Indian male “No longer Indian” if married out, if married to different tribe only belonged there, cannot be buried with rest of family Lost property, residency, kicked out with small children, no money, lost education funding, day-care, loans Could not be employed in
US 0 future affected Rejected by community BUT, men did not lose status regardless of who they married Goals: Remove as many Indians as possible “Racial purity’, removing “half-breed” Generations of people who did not belong Struggle for change Indian Rights for Indian Women Lost federal court 0 discrimination against sex and race according to Bill of Rights Appealed and won to UN 0 right for individuals in minorities to enjoy culture and practice religion Canada embarrassed 0 Act to Amend Indian Act, 1985 Separate womanliness from Nativities, as if violations of Native Women’s rights are to violation of Native rights Resistance Afraid of assimilation, losing historic rights Not up to Canadian government to determine who is or is not considered Indian Changes Women and children could apply to regain status Reserves did not want to take back those with regained status, not enough resources 7.
Gender Inequalities Rethinking African universities, Mina Mama knowledge, values, assumptions “Special”, not taken seriously, posing threat, came to find husband, knowledge is “unattractive” Secretarial, cleaning, support services Few women in academics, knowledge is male-centered, affects progress Fear, effecting women’s performance, at a disadvantage Hierarchies gender differentiation More women attending, disparities become evident and took a stand Activism, develop courses, new research Significance: Competition – Universities facing pressure to be internationally known, pressure on women studies in order to be globally competitive Hidden curriculum Knowledge starting to develop 8. Feminism and Anti-Colonialism Under the Western Eye, Chancre Montana Contemporary colonialism/imperialism between women, 2 opposite groups 0 Western women (universally liberated, superior, intellectual) vs.. Hired world women” (uneducated, victimized, sexually abused, need rescue) Asymmetries of power 0 hierarchies between women, one more superior than the other, third world women needing “rescue” How social relationships today construct racial hierarchies, gender and sexuality Overlooking complexity and diversity in women 0 third world countries as “poor, uneducated, victimized” Veiling in Middle Eastern Countries perceived as sexual control over women, but reality is that not veiling results in punishment based on tradition, not forced to, refused to be seen as week Does not insider cultural differences, victimizes all Muslim women, undermines their struggles, efforts and achievements Solidarity, need to unite 0 common struggle/ interests in diverse settings, commitment and relations of mutuality to develop common cause and build coalitions, become stronger 9.
Homophobia and Heterosexual Activist Insight: Homophobia and Heterosexual Heterosexual: one pattern of loving, right to dominance/superiority Homophobia: fear of feeling love for own sex, hatred of it in others Heterosexual 0 privilege of the norm, power Homophobia 0 sexism Personal: belief that gay/lesbian is immoral, inferior Interpersonal: behavior based on personal homophobia (name-calling) Institutional: discrimination based on sex orientation in government, businesses Cultural: social standards/norm, media, “normal family’ Phobia – can it be cured? Feminists as lesbians Link between patriarchal social relations and sexuality Sexuality as social construction, reproduction of oppression and freedom Reading of gender as outcome of social practices, assumptions about gender 10.
Package Picture of Cultures Undoing the Package Picture of Cultures, Mum Nary Stereotyping cultures, ignoring subcultures/internal differentiation Culture as explanation for everything about individual Colonial idea – not dynamic Change – no room for evolution, historically culture changes, traditions change Influence by cultures, mutuality – influenced by interactions, mutually dynamic, rejects idea of separate distinct cultures Significance: Individuals – do not want to be explained and Judged by “package picture” of their culture, everyone is different Feminism needs evolution Just like culture, challenging it is not ruining it Alliances made in different settings and cultures Missing internal difference and change