Contribution of engineer to economic development of Sir Lankan after the ethnic conflict Assyria D. P 120258P Introduction Today Sir Lankan is an independent country. After the 30 year of war Sir Lankan is rising for the prosperity. Because of this war Sir Lankan couldn’t able to stand alone like a developed country. Engineers are mainly contributing to the development of Sir Lankan. * Benefits that gained after the war Sir Lankan faced a three decades of terrible war. It was started on 23 July 1983. For over 27 years the civil war caused significant hardships for the population, environment and economy of the country.
It was estimated that 80,000 to 100,000 people killed during this war. After a 26 military campaign, Sir Lankan military defeated the LATE in May 2009. After that the country gained considerable achievements in every aspect. After the war country was rewarded with some benefits, they can be classified as below. * Increase investments After the war the foreign investors’ confidence has been raised. Sir Lankan is now considered as a safe country to invest on. So investors have chosen SSL as their next investment location. This makes the gradual increase of investments in Sir Lankan. Reducing government expenditure on military War had created massive expenditure on military development. But after the war now we can invest that money on the development of the country. * Increase of funds towards the development of the country After the civil war main aim of the nation now aligned with the economic prosperity. So government has engaged in new mega projects all over the country. * Increase the economic growth In 2009 the growth rate of the country was about 3. 5 percent but in 2012 it increases up to 8. 3 percent. In 2008 the GAP was 32. 35 B$ and it was increased to 59. 17 B$ in 2012.
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And also the GAP growth rate also increased. This statistics clearly explain the effect of war to our nation. * Freedom for the people live and travel around the country This is one of the best things got after the war. People can enjoy their freedom from visiting the places they have never visited before. * * What is engineering? There are many definitions for Engineering. “Engineering is a profession in which knowledge to the Mathematical and natural sciences, gained by study, experience and practice is applied with Judgment to ways to utilize economically, the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind. Or “Engineering is the application of science and mathematics by which properties of tater and the sources of energy in nature are made useful to people. ” Engineering can be used to make the living slandered better. That means the development of the country. Engineer can make a huge contribution towards the development of the country. * How can an Engineer contribute to development of the country Engineer can make a country different. Engineers are the people who find solutions to the burning problems.
Most of the major issues that face the country such as climate change, water availability and energy consumption need engineers to fix them. * South Korea South Korea was a poor country in asses. But now they become one of the best economies in the world. When we consider about the development of South Korea there is a major influence in Technological innovations. After the Korean war south Korea was one of the most poorest countries with only $64 per capita income. Economically, in the asses it lagged behind the Democratic Republic of Congo(DRY). However south Korea benefited from foreign aid.
They as a country mainly focus on small and medium companies that came with new innovations. This will lead them to develop with the technology and innovation. Brands like LEG and Samsung came to the world popular electronic items. All these things are based on engineering. Now the current statistics show that their GAP per capita is about $32,020. When we consider about the labor force there is only 6. 4 percent for Agriculture, 32 percent in sir Lankan. What we can get from this is that they move with the technology rather than the traditional agricultural products. The Past engineering In the ancient times also there exists number of engineering applications. Ancient Sir Lankan had the knowledge in irrigation. Irrigation systems of ancient Sir Lankan consists of a large number of village tanks, gigantic reservoirs and network of eater cannels connecting these tanks while supplying water to the farming lands. The ancient techniques used in irrigation projects have evoked admiration. They were considered without parallel elsewhere in the world. And it’s astonishing to find this early work adhering to the best type of later designs.
Evidence of their engineering skills and architectural achievements of the Sinless includes remains of vast irrigation projects, many ruined cities and numerous ruined shrines called Dagoes. There are number of examples for the existence of ancient engineering in Sardinia. * Irrigation Calculations made by the ancient irrigation engineers were found to match the modern calculations. The Cakewalk spillway meets the modern criteria for a spillway in all respects. Not only that Russia we and Mandatory ancient sluices and instincts were exactly the place the modern sluices and instincts are. The sluice barrel at Gantlet increased from the upstream and downstream by a factor of seven. This agreed exactly with the modern criteria. Modern engineers have agreed with ancient solutions. * Grind Ay dam was built at an oblique angle of nearly 45 degrees, instead of going across by the shortest possible route. But it has now being found that this greatly increased the discharging power and the ability to take shocks. * The ancient engineers were clever. A feature of You’d Ella is that the canal had only one bund. By doing this they reduced the cost by half and increasing safety.
Such that two bund would have increased the pressure causing damage while with one bund the water spreads on upper side and releases the pressure. Nevertheless the gradient of You’d Ella is about 10 to 20 CM per one kilometer for Simms still baffles experts today for its minute precision. * The ancient engineers overcome the most problems they had to face. In some large tanks, wave formations occurred and waves beat the inside of the tank bund. To prevent wave erosion, bund were strengthened with stone masonry. * The bund could also damage by small stoppage of water.
They have solutions for that also. They prevented this by digging a trench horizontal to the bund at suitable places and filling it by clay. They got elephants to trample the clay into a thick mass effectively preventing any steep. * To safeguard the bund by rain they covered bund with grass and the sides of the bund have a gradient of less than 45 degrees as a preventive measure. * Ubiquitous Another marvelous creation of engineering is ubiquitous, it designed to handle the large pressure that create when the water flows through the dam. The ubiquitous is original to Sir Lankan.
The mechanism of the great innovation makes the high pressure water, to unbelievably disciplined and calm water flow. This was an outstanding idea based on precise mathematics. * Ancient Cities – Unhampered * Adagios -Getaways Stoups Getaways stoups, the most architecturally stunning Buddhists Dagon made of bricks. This is hailed to be the most perfect archaeological monument of this nature so far found in the island. The stoups is roughly speculated to be the world’s biggest brick structure which originally had a height of 300 feet. But a part of its pinnacle has broken leaving a height of 252 feet.
According to historical records, the history of Getaways stump stretches back to 3rd century AD and it was erected by king Emphases. How ancient Sir Lankan engineers employed mathematical precision in designing and building dagoes are sensational. This phenomenal creation describes how great our ancient engineering was in the past. There are key facts that proven the skills of our ancient engineers * The backs used have been made to efferent sizes to ensure the strength and the duration and the binder of bricks has been made out of fine clay. The inner core of the Dagon is a huge column of earth, clay and fragments of bricks arranged systematically in different strata. * The foundation of the stump has been laid on the bed rock astounding 30 feet beneath the ground level. * It built with strong bricks of varying sizes and it is difficult even to imagine the amount of bricks buried in constructing the circular foundation with 1315 tee in diameter. * Evolution of engineering education Sir Lankan has a high literacy rate 90. % compared with other developing countries and it’s the highest in South Asia.
Education in Sir Lankan has a rich history that spans over 2300 years. The olden day education system of Sir Lankan evolved around the Buddhists temples and Pervasive. During the times of Portuguese, Dutch and British colonialists Christian missionaries became active in the field of education. Slandered system of modern schools was setup by the British Administration that was introduced by the Collector commission of 1836. In 1928, the late Honorable Dry. C. W. W. Kananga, who was the minister of education at that time, introduced free education to Sir Lankan.
Under the guideline of him Government introduced central colleges throughout the island of Sir Lankan providing free education to all. In Sir Lankan mainly engineering education will start after the collage time. There are 19 state run universities and 16 out of them come under the University Grants Commission. Even if there are 19 universities, among three of them offer engineering degrees. (University of Moratoria, University of Perennial, University of Around) Only 16% of students who doing their AIL can enter to these universities and for engineering there is less than 1%.
Until 1999 only state universities were allowed to grant undergraduate degrees however this has changed since then. Today there are private universities that give engineering degrees to the students. Such as CINE Maritime Campus, CUBIC Campus, Asian Institute of Technology, PIPIT Campus, Colombo School of Construction, Northern College of Business ; Technology and Sir Lankan Institute of Information Technology. So present day most of students get the chance of gaining their degree in engineering field. * Engineering projects today Upper Geothermal Hydrophone Project (SKIP)
The SKIP is a run of river hydrophone project with installed capacity of MAW and it will produce gewgaw per year. This is located in Southern Highlands of Sir Lankan and is part of the Unwary Leila district. The project was partly funded by the Japanese government. It has the longest underground tunnel which has a length of 12. 9 km and a diameter of 5. 2 m. The total cost of the project is RSI. 42 billion. OBIS loan of 33,285 million yen and CUBE 5,931 Elks) The total work force is 2250 workers, including 2100 Local workers and 150 foreign workers. The project conducted by 150
Local engineers and 90 foreign engineers. There are more Local engineers and workers involved in this project. Durra Ay project Durra Ay project is a multi-purpose development project. It will provide water to 28,000 acres for the agricultural purposes alone the MME Ay and Durra Ay basins. It would provide safe drinking water for 50,000 families, that will uplift the health standers. It would also add 1. 5 MM of power to the national grid. The damn would be built to store 75 million cubic meters of water and the water storage area is acres. The dam wool d be 18 m in height, 9 m in breadth in length.
The total investment for the project is RSI: 6. 2 Billion and its totally funded by the government with local funds. The tremendous achievement on this project is that it is 100% designed and constructed by the local engineers attached to the irrigation Department. This project again proves the capabilities of local engineers. Southern Highway project The southern Transport development project (STEP) undertake the longest expressway of the proposed expressway network in Sir Lankan, The Southern Expressway. It runs from Kowtows to Mahatma, a stretch of 128 kilometers with four ones.
It costs of RSI 85 Billion funded by CUBIC Panels Bank for International Corporation) and DAB (Asian Development Bank). There are eleven interchanges to the Expressway. The main contractors of the road is China Harbor Engineering Company. Naively Development Project The Naively Gang Development Programmer, the largest integrated rural development multi-purpose programmer ever undertaken in Sir Lankan. The main objective of this project were to increase agricultural production, Hydro power generation, employment opportunities and settlement of landless poor and flood intro.
The programmer originally planned for the implementation over a 35 year period was bought to acceleration in 1979, with incorporation of Malawi Authority. This project led to hydrophone generation capacity of 470 MM and irrigation of an additional 365,000 ha of land in the Dry Zone. Its catchments spans 10,448 km and it feeds 1003 tanks. The most projects is completed including Victoria, Cottage, Rearranging, Rearmament, Polygonal, Battened, Raiding, Mandatory and Dud Wale. Current major ongoing project is the Merchandised ; Glancing Development Project.