Secondly, to describe any characteristics of labor forces in my country. And after that to analyze data about the migrant workers, who work or looking for a job abroad. In general my goal is to demonstrate the evolution of unemployment and labor and to determine any problems, which the national economy met during the years after the Soviet Union. First of all I want to note that the definition of unemployment according to International Labor Organization (11. 0) has been used in Republic of Moldavia only from 1998, before that year the unemployment was equal to he number of official registries unemployed population.
It makes impossible to compare the unemployment before 1998 and unemployment after this year. Table 1: Unemployment rate, Activity rate and Employment rate Source: National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldavia Trend line on the Graph 1 shows us that in general unemployment rate decreases, but at the same time activity rate (Graph 2) and employment rate (Graph 3) decreases too. It means that number of population, who are working in the national economy, was decreasing during the period from 1998 to 2010 years.
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Also it’s important to note that the number of economically active people has reduced from 1 809 thousand people to 1235 thousand people and its 547 thousand people, it equal to 16% of average total population in that period of time and the number of people employed in the economy reduced from 1642 thousand people in 1998 to 1143 thousand people in 2010 and its 499 thousand people, but the total population has reduced on 89 thousand people. It means that the weight of economically active and employed population in the national economy in total population reduced. Ink that the solution of that problem is an attraction of international investments or entering in the market of international companies which are able to organize modern management and improve the competitiveness of national goods and services. The ARM has the positive experience of this kind of collaboration. For example Dreamier Automotive” created 3000 of the new jobs in one Of the free economic zones. Graph 1: Moldavia unemployment rate Source: National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Graph 2: Activity rate Source: National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldavia Graph 3:
Employment rate Employment population by occupations Graph 4: by areas of the economy Graph 5: Employment population Source: National Bureau Of Statistics of the The Graph 4 shows us that the weight of skilled agricultural and fishery workers reduced. Analyzing the Graph 5 it is possible to make a conclusion that the weight of people who work in agriculture area was reducing too in the last 13 years. Also its important to note that the weight of the people who work in Industry and Construction areas is not high, but the weight of people who work in Services area was increasing during last years.
In my opinion this trend means that Moldavia commodities are not competitive. Another argument of this statement is that the weight of services in structure of GAP was increasing during last years as it is shown in Graph 6. Graph 6: Structure of GAP Another important characteristic of labor is the level of education. As it is possible to see in Graph 7 the weight of workers who has higher education was increasing from 1 1. 9% to 23% or from 181 thousand people to 263 thousand people. Think it is positive trend, which shows the development of labor during last years. The level of education
Graph 7: Employed population by In the end I’d like to demonstrate data about the migrant’s workers, economically active people who leave their own families in Moldavia and go for looking for a job abroad. According to official data there are more than 300 thousand people from the ARM, but according to another data there are one million of Moldavia workers in foreign countries. The main part of migrant workers from the ARM prefers to work in the Russian Federation and Italy as it shown in the Table 2. Table 2: Population aged 15 years and over, working or looking for work abroad
Republic of Moldavia Table 3: Cash transfers from migrant workers According to the balance of payments cash transfers from the migrant workers were more than $ 1 billion in 2008. Other data are shown in the Table 3. This money flow is the valuable injection in the national economy. One of the biggest problems is the reducing of the employed population on approximately one half of a million of people, just those who has found a job in the national economy in general works in services area, because Moldavia commodities arena competitive on foreign and sometimes domestic markets.