PGC PRINCIPLES Purpose and Necessity of Government We are members of a bigger family ??? the society. It will be impossible to enjoy life in peace and safety without a government to keep order. Government protects lives and property, sets up and enforces rules, settles disputes, & advances the physical, economic, social, & cultural well-being of the people. Without government no one to administer the affairs of society for common good. Disorder, violence, & insecurity will prevail & values (truth, freedom, justice, equality, human dignity) taken for granted cannot be enjoyed.
Concepts of State, Government, Nation State ??? a community of persons permanently occupying a definite portion of territory, having a government of their own to which they render obedience, and enjoying freedom from external or outside control 4 Essential Elements People – inhabitants living within the state Territory – includes not only the land, but also the rivers, lakes, sea, air space Government – Agency, through which the will of state is formulated, expressed & carried out.
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Sovereignty – supreme power of the state to command & enforce obedience from its people as well as to have freedom from external control Manifestations of Sovereignty Internal – freedom to rule within its territory External – freedom to carry out its activities without control by other states – Sometimes referred to as independence Differences between State and Government State – permanent Government – temporary State – cannot exist without a government State – an ideal person (legal / judicial)
Government – an instrumentality of sovereign political unity Nation – a community of persons bound together by common characteristics: race / origin, language, religion, customs & traditions, & believe they are one & distinct from others. Differences between State and Nation State – a political concept Nation – an ethnic concept State – independent Nation – may or may not be independent State – may consist of one or more nations Nation – may be made up of several states
State – presupposes the existence of government & territory Nation – existence of government & territory is not essential State Recognition State Recognition – an act which grants to a state international status Family of Nations – organization of European states United States of America ??? 1st non-European admitted to Family of Nations Turkey – 1st non-Christian state admitted to Family of Nations (United Nations) Methods of State Recognition Formal – involves the proclamation or granting of exequatur Informal – sending of diplomatic representatives
Individual – recognition by one state Collective ??? recognition by a group of states State Recognition for a state is a matter of privilege A state must possess all the qualifications set by the recognizing organization to be recognized Rights of a State Exist as a sovereign political unity Independence ??? manage internal & external affairs without the control of other states State Intervention ??? limits right of state independence Equality Property & domain Establish international relations Jurisdiction
Theories of States Divine right theory – state a divine creation Necessity or force – created through force Contract (social & Political) – compact among the people to form a society & government – justifies the right of the people to revolt against a bad ruler Paternalistic – family as an expansion of the family which grew into a clan, then a tribe, which broadened into a nation, until became a state Instinctive – state a product of man’s instinct of gregariousness Economic – to meet multifarious needs of man
Historical or Evolutionary – state is a product of a long period of historical growth ; political development with a crude beginning made perfect through the ages Forms of Government 1. As to number of persons exercising sovereign powers a. Monarchy ??? rule of one person Absolute – ruler rules as he pleases Limited – ruler is limited by existing law of the state b. Aristocracy or Oligarchy – rule of the privileged few Democracy – rule of the many Direct or pure – people rule themselves directly Indirect or Representative ??? people are governed by representatives 2.
Extent of powers exercised by central or national government a. Unitary – one political organ controlling national ; local affairs b. Federal – powers exercised by two sets of organ, one for national affairs ; the other for local affairs, each organ being supreme in its own sphere. Relationship between the executive and legislative branches of government a. Presidential – Cabinet responsibility is towards the President alone b. Parliamentary ??? Cabinet responsibility is towards the Prime Minister and the Parliament