Medium ???A medium is a carrier and deliverer of advertisements. It is a broad general category of carries such as a Newspaper, T. V, Radio, Internet, Outdoor, Direct mail, etc Media vehicle ???A specific medium for the transmission of an advertiser’s message. ??? It is a specific carrier within a media category. So a Discovery would be the category of tv. Many a time a specific programs or section within a medium may be termed as a vehicle (e. g. Star TV, Times of India newspaper, Red fm) Media Vehicle TelevisionProgramme (Star TV) PrintPublication (Times of India) RadioProgramme (Red fm)
OutdoorSite (Hajiali road) InternetPortal (Google) Media ??? Advertising media generally include TV, Radio, newspaper, magazine, outdoor billboards, public transportation, yellow pages, direct mail, specialty advertising (on items such as note books, pencils, calendars, telephone pads, shopping bags) and other media (catalogs, samples handouts, brochures, newsletter). The right media ???Traditional or mass media: ? TV, radio. ?Idea to reach large audience. ???Niche media: ?Cable TV, direct mail, etc. reach the target audience with specific demographics ? Narrowly defined target audience Non conventional media: ? Internet Evaluate advertising media options ?The term media encompasses print, electronic, graphic, computer, telecommunications, and outdoor media. ? The term media vehicle(s) encompasses the selection and combination of specific programmes, publications, and displays in which advertising messages will be placed. The term weighted audience values indicates the numerical values assigned to different audience characteristics More on media ???Traditional media: ?Newspaper, magazine, radio, TV. Large audience, low costs. ? Certain programme audience ???Disadvantage Do not use a medium because of the content of the advertising. ?Different media have different abilities in exposing the ad material. ???Non traditional media ?Alternate ways of reaching the customers, out of the competition ? Sales promotion, internet advertising, TV screen in airport, walls in public toilets floor in super markets, banners, video tapes Ariel banners parking meter electronic billboards etc ???Disadvantage: ?Cost per thousand very low ?Not many can be reached ?Image problem ???Specialized media: ?Magazine, publication, catalogs that are for investment, golf, sport car and trade. This is so called niche marketing, which is targeting at business and professionals Principle for selecting media vehicle ???Select media vehicle that can reach prospect ???With an optimum amount of frequency ???At the lowest cpm ???With a minimum wastage ???Within a specific budget MEDIA VEHICLES Deciding to include advertising in the communication mix process is a relatively easy decision compared to deciding which media and media vehicle (for example which magazine or which cannel on TV, etc. ) Most of the advertising budget gets spent on the media (and not the creative or production side).
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This is why a careful planning, negotiating and knowledge skills are very important. Expert media planners and buyers got the best out of the advertising by finding the right spaces or places for an ad campaign at the lowest cost. There are a wide variety of media available today for the advertisers to choose from. The decision is depended on a lot of factors at the same time it is a very crucial decision since the success of the campaign is highly depended on the media selection aspect. TYPES OF MEDIA VEHICLES BROADCAST MEDIA Broadcast media are quite young in comparison to the printed word.
Fundamentally there are two main forms of broadcast: television and radio. Advertisers use these classes of media in order to reach mass audiences with their messages at a relatively low cost per target reached. The media allows the advertisers to add audio and /or visuals to their messages. The media gives life and energy to the advertising message which is not really possible through other media. However people are normally unable and unwilling to become actively involved in the broadcast advertising message. They cant consume the pace at which the message is seen and understood as the time is very short due to the cost aspect.
The advertisers are also unable to provide excessive details and information. As a result the medium becomes more suitable for low involvement products. Advertising messages through the broadcast media use a small time period, normally 15 or 30 or 60 seconds depending on their budget and the availability. NARROWCASTING The word “narrowcasting” is particularly unique to the industry of media specifically that of broadcast media. It is, according to the dictionary, the ability to “aim a radio or TV program or programming at a specific, limited audience or consumer market. The practice came to the forefront with the advent of cable television. As this specialty media has matured, narrowcasting has become a fine art. In the earlier days of Indian television, the two major networks (doordarshans) dominated programming and sought to obtain the widest audience possible. They avoided programming content that might appeal only to a small segment of the mass population and succeeded in their goal by reaching nearly 90% (combined) of the television viewing audience on a regular basis.
The networks maintained their stronghold until competition emerged through the addition of many independent stations, the proliferation of cable channels and the popularity of videocassettes. These competitors provided television audiences with many more viewing options. Consequently, the large numbers previously achieved through mass-oriented programming dwindled and “narrowcasting” took hold. With narrowcasting the programmer or producer assumes that only a limited number of people or a specific demographic group will be interested in the subject matter of a program.
In many ways, this is the essence of cable television’s programming strategy. Following the format or characteristics of specialized magazines, a cable television program or channel may emphasize one subject or a few closely related subjects. For example, music television is presented on MTV (Music Television), or Channel V, CMM. ETC, CNN (Cable News Network) offers 24-hour news coverage; ESPN (Entertainment Sports Network) boasts an all sports format; and Star TV, Zee etc, covers the family entertainment segment.
Other cable channels feature programming such as shopping, comedy, science-fiction, or programs aimed at specific ethnic or gender groups highly prized by specific advertisers NEW MEDIA Recent technological advances have increased the range of new media available to the advertisers to communicate with their prospects and the consumers. New media allows for far greater level of interactions between the advertiser and the receiver. The new media would include internet and short message service (SMS).
New media is different from traditional media on a number of fronts, but the most important being the time that elapses between message receipt and response. With new media the advertisers can target tightly clustered audiences with well defined messages. INTERNET ADVERTISING The World Wide Web is a hybrid medium, which shares characteristics with mass communication as well as interpersonal communication. The medium combines the ability of the mass media to disperse a message to a wider audience with some of interpersonal communication’s possibilities of feed-back and interaction
From a marketing view point, one of the implications of this is that exposure and action advertising and transactions can be integrated. Since the medium is interactive, users of the World Wide Web play a much more active role in the communication process than users of traditional mass media. Where traditional mass media are characterized by an information push, the communication processes on the Web are driven by a basic information pull, meaning that the control balance of the communication process has shifted in favour of the user.
The immense body of information available to the individual user further pushes the control of the communication process towards the user, and has lead to a highly fragmented content structure that allows the individual user to pursue his specific interests. Internet advertising has gained significant momentum across the world and has become a part of the media mix that is being considered by advertisers worldwide. 2)SMS – Selling Made Smarter! A significant addition to the increasing list of communication carriers, is that of SMS, Short Messaging Service.
SMS has become the fastest, easiest and the most convenient way to communicate today. For reasons personal or professional, SMS works across purposes. The most recent application of SMS has been to reach out to the consumer offering him products and services just as any of the other mass media would. Be it in the form of promotions or advertising or even sales, the functionality of SMS usage is crossing all barriers. Role of media vehicles In a media plan, each media vehicle has significance and a role to play. Having the right mix of vehicles ensures meeting the objective of the campaign right.
Each medium used for advertising has a role to play. “If print generates awareness and disseminates information, television is a vehicle to build the brand with its visual and emotional appeal. ” Outdoor and radio work as reminder media, although outdoor advertising has been used heavily recently for creating initial awareness at the time of product launch. The internet is being used increasingly to provide detailed information, as a reminder medium, and for the interactivity and transactional facilities it offers.
Interestingly, using tools, media agencies claim, they can accurately foretell the effect of a certain advertising format in a certain media vehicle and the effectiveness of a given creative on the given target group. Ad budget allocation is much more scientific today than it was, say, a decade-and-a-half ago. Tools are used at every stage to achieve campaign objectives and derive maximum effectiveness from the advertising. Television: In 2004, the ad spend on television was Rs5,428 crore (46 per cent of total ad spend in India), the highest ever as yet. The ad to content ratio varies from network to network but is mostly around 30:70.
This gives ample airtime availability every day. Each channel addresses a special segment in terms of demographics, behaviour and attitude. You might think that the fragmentation has so much clutter that it has become impossible for advertisers to choose the most effective spots in which to advertise. Actually it is not. Talking about the clutter, Manish Porwal, executive director, India-west, Starcom, says, “Fragmentation is an opportunity, not a problem. If you have communication architects who know how to utilise that opportunity and put you in the right mix of vehicles and channels, you have got your audience anyway. In fact, if there were just a single publication or channel cutting across all audiences, advertising niche products on the channel would be very expensive because it would result in an over-kill since a large part of the channel’s audience is not part of the target group. Smart planning at the media agency can actually help advertisers to save money. Media agencies have now begun to help clients to move their ads from the commercial breaks and into the programmes themselves. Advertisers who have smuggled themselves into programmes include SOTC, VLCC and ICICI Prudential.
Top programmes like Kyunki saas bhi kabhi bahu thi on Star Plus and Jassi jaisi koi nahi on Sony have been more than happy to oblige. Print: Ever since the 24×7 news channels made their way into India homes, speculation about the viability of the print media resurfaced. Curiously, recent statistics indicate that at least the leading print publications are doing well. According to Adex India, for the first time, in 2004, print has shown a growth of 17. 40 per cent, compared with TV’s 13 per cent. And, if the launch of fat new newspapers is anything to go by, there is a lot of steam still left in the print business.
In just two month in mid-2005, Mumbai witnessed the launch of three major newspapers – the Mumbai Mirror from the Bennett & Coleman stable, the Mumbai edition of the Hindustan Times, and the Dainik Bhaskar-Zee Television coalition’s Daily News and Analysis, or DNA. Number of news channels over years Source:TAM Three sectors – education (including coaching and vocational), real estate and hospitality – have driven revenue growths for print. These sectors advertise mostly in the local pages of newspapers. More and more national dailies are printing local editions catalysing growth.
Dainik Jagran, the No1 Hindi daily in India (readership: 212 million) has a presence in nine states and prints 27 editions. The Times of India, India’s top English daily, has a local pullout every day besides domain-specific supplements. The ad revenues of general interest and film magazines have either reached a plateau or dipped. However, niche magazines covering areas such as auto, IT and real estate have seen increased ad revenues. Advertisers find the “fragmentation” into niche areas a boon for reaching narrow target groups. Radio: Think traditional radio advertising of the early days and the Dabur lal dant manjan jingle comes to mind.
For long, the products advertised on radio were, by and large, those used by the rural folks and were meant for places where there was no electricity. Today, Bihar, Orissa and eastern Uttar Pradesh are the three radio-intensive areas and the medium is used to sell cycles and Lifebuoy soaps. But since they are on the periphery of the growing consumer class in India, these regions (and therefore radio) do not get much of the ad pie. Now we have a new type of radio service, FM, which Porwal likes to describe as “a richer cousin of the regular radio”. This medium is very popular with young consumers, who are hooked to it over the cellular phone.
FM is also a part of the life of mature consumers driving to work daily. FM is gaining acceptance amongst advertisers for another reason too. Pradeep Iyengar, vice president, west and south, adds, “It’ cost-effective. ” The drawback: its reach is restricted to mostly metros and mini metros. The silver lining: the 10 million listeners are mostly consumer class. Radio (including FM) received just Rs23. 6 crore in advertising revenue in 2004. A little disappointing, being just 2 per cent of total ad spend – and considering the potential this medium has for effective local advertising. Now that the sector is being iberalised and a revenue sharing regime may replace the fixed license fee, and the second phase of privatisation from September-end 2005 will open up around 300 more markets for radio channels, this medium would be worth watching. Contribution of local advertisers to radio revenue Time period: Jul-Sep 2004 Source: Radio AdEx Outdoor Advertising ???Outdoor delivers viewers. Today, consumers spend more time traveling in their vehicles than ever before. That makes outdoor advertising a more powerful medium than ever. In the past 25 years, the number of vehicles on the road increased 128%.
Those are the people you reach over and over with outdoor advertising. ???Outdoor reaches your audience when they need it. Outdoor advertising is often the final reminder of a brand name product or service just before the point of purchase. It is the most visible media being exposed to everyone who leaves their home to work, shop or play. ???Outdoor is efficient. No other advertising medium reaches as many people, as often, at such a low cost. When it comes to generating repeat exposure to an audience, outdoor advertising is the most cost effective per 1,000 viewers. ???Outdoor is big, bold and dynamic.
Its larger-than-life proportions and endless creative options will grab and hold consumer attention. ???Outdoor offers constant repetitive exposure. Seven days a week, 31 days a month, outdoor delivers your message over and over. Your prospects have your sales message right there in front of them Out-of-home (OOH): Out-of-home communication (on billboards and hoardings and on kiosks and buses) have usually been selected as supplementary reminder media playing second fiddle to TV and press advertising. Now, all of a sudden, outdoor advertising has been used in a more powerful way to launch products.
The newspaper DNA used outdoor advertising almost exclusively for spreading its launch message across the Mumbai conurbation. Earlier large companies like Reliance Infocomm, Hutch and Tata Indicom have used outdoor advertising massively to reach a large audience. As reminder medium nobody who has lived in major Indian city can forget the Amul hoardings, which people actually look forward to seeing. The problem with outdoors has always been how to measure its effectiveness although it has found its way into the media plans of many advertisers. Now tracking OOH may soon become simpler.
TAM, in collaboration with its partner Neilsen Outdoor, is testing “NMR Outdoor” – a Peoplemeter equivalent for outdoors – in Chicago. Says LV Krishnan, CEO, TAM Media Research, “NMR Outdoors, a small, lightweight device, will reside on a user’s body and measure the user’s location (including distance from outdoor sites), angle and time with the help of satellite-based GPRS. ” Essentially, this device will measure exposures to the hoardings or billboards based on the distance from and the angle at which the person is exposed to the particular creative.
Outdoor advertising can cost as much as Rs21 lakh for a single hoarding on Patel Bridge on Marine Drive in Mumbai, or about Rs16 lakh at Heera Panna at Haji Ali in the same city. Steep as the rates may see, TV and print are much more expensive. In its new role, outdoors is turning to the use of LED and Magnik. Communicating through the outdoor medium is a challenge. Since the outdoor media address a mobile audience, they require a unique creative: the copy should not exceed seven words and the concept should be absorbed in seven seconds.
No wonder there are companies like Ads Advertising and Outdoor Today, which specialise in outdoors. Media agencies like Starcom have a dedicated division, Star Sight, concentrating on outdoors. Internet Undoubtedly, this is the hot new field. Internet in India has 25 million users. The year-on-year growth in internet advertising in India has been 150 per cent. Of the total ad spend on the online space, 40 per cent has been from the financial sector. The medium works very well with a premium audience.
Little wonder then that the banks are the biggest spenders online, closely followed by insurance companies and mutual funds, followed by IT and travel and tourism. The advantage these industries get online is of more clearly defined target groups, mostly educated and belonging mostly (approx 40 per cent) to SEC AB. The internet reaches a sizeable population (approx. 50 per cent) in the metros. For industries with high-value products, addressing premium audiences online makes great sense. One hurdle for the medium is the constraint of reach. The moment it reaches critical mass here, FMCG may be the biggest spenders.
The first step forward in that direction is the formation of the Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI), a governing body for the internet in India. IAMAI is presided over by Neville Taraporewala, chairman, Yahoo Web Services India Pvt Ltd; the member portals are MSN, Yahoo, Rediff, Indiatimes and Sify. The association is working with the objective of reaching 100 million users over the next two to three years. It would also be the authority in India to publish internet usage figures. More and more clients are demanding that the internet be part of their media mix.
Shamsuddin Jasani, manager, Mediaturf, says: “With internet you have interactivity. It is a response-generating mechanism. It enforces what one has seen on TV and radio. ” Internet is also the medium, which is the most measurable. Jasani http://www. domain-b. com/marketing/scripts/recommend/recommend. aspadds, “There is no sample size, there is the whole universe to work on. Since there is no extrapolation the measurements are 100 per cent correct. ” Advertising Media Television has attracted about 46 % of the money spent on advertising.
It is available in broadcast or cable form and generates a big platform for advertising. To run commercials on TV, advertisers have to buy units of time which range from 15 over 30 and up to 60 seconds in length. These spots are the most expensive ads and can cost up to millions depending on what time they are aired. If we just think about the ads shown at the major sports events in the India, like the cricket world cup. Only very economically powerful companies can afford this. The combination of sight, sound and motion creates a more dramatic form of advertising which is considered to build a product’s brand image or to reate an excitement around a special event such as a one-time sale. These ads are not intense enough to provide the viewer with a lot of information and are therefore only useful for products which are already familiar to the costumers. Newspapers are an important media as well. Their advantage is to reach readers of different age groups, ethnic backgrounds and income levels. They display photographs and illustrations, giving explicit and detailed information about a product, new inventions and product improvements.
Their disadvantage is that they can’t create such an emotionally strong image as the TV ads, but the opportunity to present coupons for special products shows a great popularity amongst customers, and is often used. Direct mail is another kind of advertising, sending the ads via mail system to the future customers. This system is also used through e-mails and offers graphics and links to more information. In order to do this kind of advertising, the advertisers have to buy so-called mailing lists, which contain the addresses of people with certain wanted characteristics.
Many advertisers consider this system the most effective, because it is much cheaper than mailing the advertisements and it is launched right at the target group. Radio usually reaches a smaller group of people, mostly from one specific area. This gives local businesses the chance to broadcast their very specialized ads. Most people listen to these ads when they are driving in their car, so they will be informed of any kind of sales in stores in their region. They will hear them before they go shopping and might be tempted to buy these products.
These ads have to be very simple and easy to be understood, since people are usually doing something, like driving, when listening to them. Cinema Advertising Indian loves the movies. It is compelling entertainment that the whole family can enjoy and tops the list of adult leisure activities – even beating out such popular activities as dining out, entertaining friends or relatives at home, and reading books. * Box Office: Illustrating the power of cinema and America’s enduring passion for the movies, in 2007, US box office was $9. 63 billion, an increase of 5. 4% in total domestic box office figures over 2006.
The studios helped to drive attendance by releasing a whopping 603 new films**. Strengths of Cinema Advertising: Premium Marketing Opportunity Cinema Advertising has also contributed to the overall cinema experience. Since the CAC’s founding in 2003, the industry has tracked five consecutive years of healthy, year-over-year, double-digit growth. This upward trend continues as cinema advertising delivers advertisers a premium marketing opportunity in a unique environment with an attentive audience, multiple consumer touch points, and new technologies-including digital capabilities delivering flexible and entertaining pre-shows.
John Fithian, president of National Association of Theatre Owners (NATO), speaking at the 2nd Annual “Marquee Marketing at the Movies” noted that Cinema Advertising has become part of the core business of theatre owners, citing that cinema advertising income ranks third in revenue streams behind ticket sales and concessions. And, regarding audience acceptance, said that patrons are not just comfortable with the pre-show, but that they actually like it. Unique Audience
The cinema audience is unique in that it is attentive, engaged, and comprised of highly desirable young, affluent, and well educated consumers who aren’t distracted by telephones, remote-control devices, electronic media, or simply performing household activities away from broadcast media during commercial breaks. Measured in terms of year-over-year revenue growth, Cinema Advertising proved to be one of the fastest-growing media in 2007 based on figures available from the Cinema Advertising Council (CAC).
The CAC announced that in 2007, cinema advertising revenue grew 18. 5% over 2006, equating to $539. 9 million. New Technology-Digital delivery The medium’s impressive growth can be attributed in part to the advancement of the digital platform. Within the last two years, a primary contributor to the rapidly increasing use of the medium by national advertisers has been the shift from analog to Digital projection systems, easing barriers to entry driven by production and flighting practices.
This shift to digital production systems has also led to the development of “digital pre-shows” which enable cinema advertising vendors to project advertisements in a seamless presentation of motion advertising and long-form, entertainment-based content. Magazines only ranked sixth in the total spending on advertising in the U. S. A. in India. They are very specialized and target the reader of such magazines who usually have very similar interests. If you think about the highly specialized women magazines, displaying make up and other cosmetic products reaching for teenage girls to older women.
This magazines are very prestigious because they show beautiful colour photographs of the celebrities of today’s pop-culture. Advertising on the Internet is becoming more and more popular among companies, since the majority of young consumers have online access at home. They range from banners, buttons, pop-ups to sponsorships of homepages, which we have been discussed in our course. This form of advertising gives the opportunity to check out the given information right away and most of the time allows the customer to order the product online without even leaving his or her home.
The last group of advertising we want to talk about is Outdoor Advertising which is launched via huge billboards to a highly mobile audience which is on the road very often. In cities like Mumbai and the world’s metropolises, these big boards are part of the appearance of the city. People commuting to and from work will pass them, and subconsciously take them into account. This type of advertising has the lowest cost per exposure of any kind of advertisement. The boards are colourful, big and simply hard to ignore, and that’s what makes them effective. For a business, every dollar is count.
Businesses do not advertise for the sake of advertising. Instead, they want to get the most return for their investment. Your advertising campaign should translate to greater sales, more profits and healthier bottom line. While there are a number of venues where you can promote your business, you need to ask three important questions: ???Where are my target buyers? ???What is the best medium to reach them? ???Can I afford to launch an effective campaign using this medium? An important step to developing your sales and marketing plan is to select the right media to send out your message.
There are no hard-and-fast rules as to which media is better. The right media for one business may be wrong for another. Newspapers Newspapers are one of the traditional mediums used by businesses, both big and small alike, to advertise their businesses. Advantages ???Allows you to reach a huge number of people in a given geographic area ???You have the flexibility in deciding the ad size and placement within the newspaper ???Your ad can be as large as necessary to communicate as much of a story as you care to tell ???Exposure to your ad is not limited; readers can go back to your message again and again if so desired. Free help in creating and producing ad copy is usually available ???Quick turn-around helps your ad reflect the changing market conditions. The ad you decide to run today can be in your customers’ hands in one to two days. Disadvantages ???Ad space can be expensive ???Your ad has to compete against the clutter of other advertisers, including the giants ads run by supermarkets and department stores as well as the ads of your competitors ???Poor photo reproduction limits creativity Newspapers are a price-oriented medium; most ads are for sales ???Expect your ad to have a short shelf life, as newspapers are usually read once and then discarded. ???You may be paying to send your message to a lot of people who will probably never be in the market to buy from you. ???Newspapers are a highly visible medium, so your competitors can quickly react to your prices ???With the increasing popularity of the Internet, newspapers face declining readership and market penetration.
A growing number of readers now skip the print version of the newspaper (and hence the print ads) and instead read the online version of the publication. Magazines: Magazines are a more focused, albeit more expensive, alternative to newspaper advertising. This medium allows you to reach highly targeted audiences. Advantages ???Allows for better targeting of audience, as you can choose magazine publications that cater to your specific audience or whose editorial content specializes in topics of interest to your audience. High reader involvement means that more attention will be paid to your advertisement ???Better quality paper permits better color reproduction and full-color ads ???The smaller page (generally 8 ? by 11 inches) permits even small ads to stand out Disadvantages ???Long lead times mean that you have to make plans weeks or months in advance ???The slower lead time heightens the risk of your ad getting overtaken by events ???There is limited flexibility in terms of ad placement and format. ???Space and ad layout costs are higher
Yellow Pages There are several forms of Yellow Pages that you can use to promote and advertise your business. Aside from the traditional Yellow Pages supplied by phone companies, you can also check out specialized directories targeted to specific markets (e. g. Hispanic Yellow Pages, Blacks, etc. ); interactive or consumer search databases; Audiotex or talking yellow pages; Internet directories containing national, local and regional listings; and other services classified as Yellow Pages. Advantages Wide availability, as mostly everyone uses the Yellow Pages ???Non-intrusive ???Action-oriented, as the audience is actually looking for the ads ???Ads are reasonably inexpensive ???Responses are easily tracked and measured ???Frequency Disadvantages ???Pages can look cluttered, and your ad can easily get lost in the clutter ???Your ad is placed together with all your competitors ???Limited creativity in the ads, given the need to follow a pre-determined format ???Ads slow to reflect market changes
Radio: It usually reaches a smaller group of people, mostly from one specific area. This gives local businesses the chance to broadcast their very specialized ads. Most people listen to these ads when they are driving in their car Advantages ???Radio is a universal medium enjoyed by people at one time or another during the day, at home, at work, and even in the car. ???The vast array of radio program formats offers to efficiently target your advertising dollars to narrowly defined segments of consumers most likely to respond to your offer. Gives your business personality through the creation of campaigns using sounds and voices ???Free creative help is often available ???Rates can generally be negotiated ???During the past ten years, radio rates have seen less inflation than those for other media Disadvantages ???Because radio listeners are spread over many stations, you may have to advertise simultaneously on several stations to reach your target audience ???Listeners cannot go back to your ads to go over important points ???Ads are an interruption in the entertainment.
Because of this, a radio ad may require multiple exposure to break through the listener’s “tune-out” factor and ensure message retention ???Radio is a background medium. Most listeners are doing something else while listening, which means that your ad has to work hard to get their attention Television: The combination of sight, sound and motion creates a more dramatic form of advertising which is considered to build a product’s brand image or to create an excitement around a special event such as a one-time sale Advantages Television permits you to reach large numbers of people on a national or regional level in a short period of time ???Independent stations and cable offer new opportunities to pinpoint local audiences ???Television being an image-building and visual medium, it offers the ability to convey your message with sight, sound and motion Disadvantages ???Message is temporary, and may require multiple exposure for the ad to rise above the clutter ???Ads on network affiliates are concentrated in local news broadcasts and station breaks ???Preferred ad times are often sold out far in advance Limited length of exposure, as most ads are only thirty seconds long or less, which limits the amount of information you can communicate ???Relatively expensive in terms of creative, production and airtime costs Direct Mail Direct mail, often called direct marketing or direct response marketing, is a marketing technique in which the seller sends marketing messages directly to the buyer. Direct mail include catalogs or other product literature with ordering opportunities; sales letters; and sales letters with brochures.
Advantages ???Your advertising message is targeted to those most likely to buy your product or service. ???Marketing message can be personalized, thus helping increase positive response. ???Your message can be as long as is necessary to fully tell your story. ???Effectiveness of response to the campaign can be easily measured. ???You have total control over the presentation of your advertising message. ???Your ad campaign is hidden from your competitors until it’s too late for them to react ???Active involvement – the act of pening the mail and reading it — can be elicited from the target market. Disadvantages ???Some people do not like receiving offers in their mail, and throw them immediately without even opening the mail. ???Resources need to be allocated in the maintenance of lists, as the success of this kind of promotional campaign depends on the quality of your mailing list. ???Long lead times are required for creative printing and mailing ???Producing direct mail materials entail the expense of using various professionals – copywriter, artists, photographers, printers, etc. Can be expensive, depending on your target market, quality of your list and size of the campaign. Telemarketing Telephone sales, or telemarketing, is an effective system for introducing a company to a prospect and setting up appointments. Advantages ???Provides a venue where you can easily interact with the prospect, answering any questions or concerns they may have about your product or service. ???It’s easy to prospect and find the right person to talk to. ???It’s cost-effective compared to direct sales. ???Results are highly measurable. You can get a lot of information across if your script is properly structured. ???If outsourcing, set-up cost is minimal ???Increased efficiency since you can reach many more prospects by phone than you can with in-person sales calls. ???Great tool to improve relationship and maintain contact with existing customers, as well as to introduce new products to them ???Makes it easy to expand sales territory as the phone allows you to call local, national and even global prospects. Disadvantages ???An increasing number of people have become averse to telemarketing. More people are using technology to screen out unwanted callers, particularly telemarketers ???Government is implementing tougher measures to curb unscrupulous telemarketers ???Lots of businesses use telemarketing. ???If hiring an outside firm to do telemarketing, there is lesser control in the process given that the people doing the calls are not your employees ???May need to hire a professional to prepare a well-crafted and effective script ???It can be extremely expensive, particularly if the telemarketing is outsourced to an outside firm ???It is most appropriate for high-ticket retail items or professional services.
Specialty Advertising This kind of advertising entails the use of imprinted, useful, or decorative products called advertising specialties, such as key chains, computer mouse, mugs, etc. These articles are distributed for free; recipients need not purchase or make a contribution to receive these items. Advantages ???Flexibility of use ???High selectivity factor as these items can be distributed only to the target market. ???If done well, target audience may decide to keep the items, hence promoting long retention and constant exposure ???Availability of wide range of inexpensive items that can be purchased at a low price. They can create instant awareness. ???They can generate goodwill in receiver ???The items can be used to supplement other promotional efforts and media (e. g. distributed during trade shows). Disadvantages ???Targeting your market is difficult. ???This can be an inappropriate medium for some businesses. ???It is difficult to find items that are appropriate for certain businesses ???Longer lead time in developing the message and promotional product ???Possibility of saturation in some items and audiences ???Wrong choice of product or poor creative may cheapen the image of advertiser ?