European nations after WWW Created the Fourteen Points to help establish a fair and lasting peace. Suffered a stroke in 1919 but served as President until 1921. The USA and the Paris Peace Conference The US Senate refused to ratify the settlement agreed at the Paris Peace Conference What does Ratify mean? The IIS wanted to return to Isolationism and keep out of foreign affairs as much as possible. Russia and Communism Russia was not invited to participate in the Paris Peace Talks. The Bolshevik government was determined to spread Communism Based on ideas of Karl Marx & Frederica Engel’s
A classless society where there is common ownership of the means of production Opposite of Capitalism (where individuals can become wealthy through ownership of land, factories, etc. ) The Peace Settlements of 1919-1920 Willow’s Fourteen Points 1. No Secret Treaties or alliances between countries Wilson believed the secret treaties/alliances contributed significantly to WWW Freedom of the Seas in peace & war 2. No more unrestricted submarine warfare Removal of Trade Barriers 3. Protectionist policies should be avoided because it causes anger and resentment among nations 4. Reduction of Armaments by all nations
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European arms race of late 1 8005 was a major cause of WWW 5. Adjustment of colonial claims, taking natives’ wishes into account Rival imperial claims should be settled by negotiations, not conflict. 6. Russia to be invited to society of nations and all land restored Russian’s involvement in negotiations of settlement was vital for lasting peace. 7. Restoration of Belgian Territory All land taken from Belgium during war should be returned. 8. Liberation of France France should be freed from German occupation and Lace & Lorraine should also be returned 9. Readjustment of Italian Frontiers along nines of nationality.
Wilson believed nationality was based on language. Areas that were predominantly Italian-speaking should belong to Italy. ID. Independence for peoples of Straightaway People should have a chance for independence and self-governance 1 1. Restoration of Balkan Nations (Romania, Serbia, Montenegro) Serbia should also be given access to the sea so they can trade effectively. 12. Self-government for non-Turkish peoples and free passage through Dreamless for all nations. Non-Turkish peoples should be granted independence and their own governments. All nations’ ships can have access to the
Dreamless. 13. Independence for Poland Poland should also be provided with Sea access 14. The Creation of a League of Nations to ensure future peace Wilson envisioned an international organization where nations could discuss their disagreements and deal with them by negotiation and not war. Russia and World War The Russian Revolution of 1917 left Russia in the hands of Bolshevik leader, Vladimir I. Lenin Lead the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1917-1924 Lenin believed it was essential to end Russian’s involvement in WWW Signed the Treaty of Breaststrokes on March 3, 1918.
Treaty of Brest-Litotes Terms of treaty were extremely harsh on Russia Russia lost Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Georgia and Finland. These areas contained much of Russian’s best farmland, raw materials and heavy industry Russia lost 25% of its population 25% of its Industry and 90% of its coal mines. Russian Land Lost “Three Bones -a Bountiful A political cartoon from 1918 by American cartoonist, EAI. Bushnell The End of the War With Russia out of the war, Germany no longer had to fight on two fronts. Germany was able to launch a major offensive on the Western Front and things looked good for the
Central powers. The Allies launched a counter-offensive that drove the Germans back. Germany tried one last naval battle against the British. German sailors, convinced this was a suicide mission, mutinied. This sparked a wider revolution within Germany and Kaiser Wilhelm II was forced to abdicate. Problems for the Paris peacemakers January 1919 – nearly 30 countries met a Versailles, near Paris. Goal: Develop a settlement that would end WWW and prevent something like it from happening again. Revolutions were happening throughout the former Status-Hungarian, Russian and Turkish empires.
Revolution seemed a genuine threat in France and other major European nations. To avoid revolutions, decisions at the peace conference needed to be reached quickly… The Council Of Four 0 Made majority of the decisions at the Paris Peace 1) President Woodrow Wilson (USA) 2) PM David Lloyd George (Britain) 3) PM Georges Clemencies (France) 4) PM Vitriol Orlando (Italy)* *Italy actually had little influence, so most decisions were made by the “Big The ere” Disagreements over Germany Cleanness’s View: Destroy Germany militarily and economically Wanted to ensure Germany could never hearten French borders again.
Earned nickname “The Tiger Lloyd George’s View: Wanted less severe punishment for Germany Germany was major consumer Of British exports, so Britain wanted Germany on a fast path to recovery. British public option was strongly anti-German Willow’s Views Wanted a lenient peace based on the Fourteen Points and his slogan “Peace without Victory”. Believed harsh punishment for Germany would cause resentment and make future conflict more likely.
Wilson could no longer claim to fully represent the government of the USA because the Democrats had lost control of the Senate in the dieter elections. US Congress consists of two “houses” – the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate is the more powerful of the two – USA can only enter into treaties with approval of the Senate. Treaty of Versailles None of the defeated nations were invited to the Paris Peace Conference Germans were horrified by the terms of the treaty, but had no choice but to sign Signed on June 28, 1919 Germany lost 70,000 sq. Limiters (27,000 sq. Miles) and almost 7 million people Conditions of the Treaty of Versailles Lace & Lorraine were returned to France Peen & Melody went to Belgium Northern Schlesinger went to Denmark The Sara Valley would be administered by the League of Nations After 15 years, A Plebiscite (a vote where people get to share their opinion for or against a proposal) would decide whether it would belong to Germany or France The Rangeland was to be demoralized.
Conditions of the Treaty (Continued) Much of West Prussia went to Poland, allowing access to the Sea through the polish Corridor. Port of Mel went to Lithuania Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania became independent states Germany lost its African colonies, which became Mandates Mandates: Territory taken from one defeated action and given to another country, which would administer it on behalf of the League of Nations.