Finally, a comprehensive view of some critical success factors In e-Government Is proposed. Keywords: e-Government; Critical Success Factor; Internet; Security. Introduction The time for the electronic-based society has arrived. E-Government has received more and more importance and it can provide a non-stop government information services to citizens, enterprises, public officers, government administrations and agencies over a network. There are many issues in e-Government which need a careful examination such as security issues,l service requirements of e- Government,4,5,6 e-Government model, 7,8,9,10,1 1 strategy and policy for e-
Government, 14,1 5,16,17 and domain of e-Government. 18 In this article, we focus on the challenges, obstacles, and Critical Success Factors (CIFS)19 In e-Government. First of all, we have to consider all of the participants In an e-Government system. According to the Involved communities, an explicit classification of e-Government applications is proposed. It provides a way to an understanding of the challenges and CIFS in e-Government. Further detailed classification of e-Government applications is provided in a subsequent section.
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Then the challenges and obstacles in e-Government are considered from four respective. The CIFS of e-Government are described next. Finally, the last section provides conclusions and outlines future research directions. INFORMATION & SECURITY. An International Journal, Volvo. 15, NO. I, 2004, 9-20. 10 Challenges In e-Government and Security of Information An Explicit Classification of government Applications government system have to be known. Therefore, the authors have defined four basic involved communities: Government, Officeholder, Citizens, and Business.
All of the applications in an e-Government system will be developed in accordance with these four communities. An explicit classification of the e-Government applications is illustrated in Figure 1 and the detailed description of each e-Government application is as given below. Government-to-Government e-Government (G-to-G e-Gob) Government-to-Government e-Government (G-to-G e-Gob) supports the exchange of Information between the inter-organizational governmental departments, such as the system of official documents received and dispatched. -Government rent(G) Government(G) Administration Agency 3-to-G Citizen(C) 3-to-c 3-to-o c-to-c Officeholder(O) 3-to-B easiness(B) Business(S) C-to-G Community Application Figure 1 : An Explicit Classification of e-Government Applications. Min-Shining Hang, Chunk-Ta L’, Jag-Xi Sheen, and Yen-Ping Chug rent-to-officeholder e-Government (G-to-O e-Gob) Government-to-officeholder e-Government (G-to-O e-Gob) supports intergenerational government officeholders, public affair organizations, and secondary organizations’ cooperative processes and procedures of public affairs.
Government-to-Citizen e-Government (G-to-C e-Gob) Citizens are aware of the services provided by the government through the communication network and use the service with their personal identities through cure mechanisms. E-Voting and e-Assistance are two examples. Government-to- easiness e-Government (G-to-B e-Gob) Businesses are aware of the services provided by the government through the secure mechanisms. Examples are on-line customs declaration of goods or on-line clearance of goods.
Citizen-to-Citizen e-Government (C-to-C e-Gob) In Citizen -to- Citizen e-Government, the Government acts in a mediator role for the exchange of information. Typical examples are the following ones: the Government acts as a trouble-shooter in citizens’ dispute or the Government offers temporary Jobs o the victims of a disaster, so they could work in the public sector or private businesses. In this type of application the Government is a mediator that offers help n terms of manpower and information.
Business-to-Business e-Government (B-to-B a-GOB) Similar to the above-described application of C-to-C e-Government, in Business-to- Business e-Government the Government plays an intermediary role in the exchange of information. For example, the Government could invite the business to bid for contracts that contain sensitive information. These businesses might produce the country’s weaponry, such as tanks, warships, and warplanes. Citizen-to-Government a-Government (C-to-G e-Gob) Reese electronic communities are formed based on the demand of the citizens :demand aggregate-driven).
Citizens request assistance or give suggestions to the citizenry, for example. Business-to-Government e-Government (B-to-G e-Gob) Similar to the above-mentioned application of C-to-G e-Government, electronic communities are formed on the basis of the demands of the business (demand aggregate-driven). Businesses ask for governmental patronage or proposals from other businesses, for example. 12 Challenges in e-Government and Security of Information Challenges and Obstacles in e-Government
Considering the types of applications of e-Government described in the previous section, the authors demonstrate some challenges and obstacles to e-Government eddied from four perspectives: technical, political, cultural, and legal aspects. There is some difference between the aspects proposed here and the four aspects proposed by Whimper and von Borrowed: social, political, cultural, and legal aspects. Ere challenges and obstacles in e-Government are illustrated in Figure 2 and further explanation of the challenges and obstacles in e-Government is provided below. Technical Political Challenges and Obstacles n nine government rent
Cultural Legal IT infrastructure construction -Promotion of security mechanism Integrity -Secure payment mechanism Policy propagation -Formulate security issues Provide services -Process standardization -Authority and responsibility recognizing Formulate the reparation agreements User lacked the confidence -Threat of user’s secret data and the right of privacy -Obstacles to use IT equipments -User lacked for cognition of using information service -Problem of authority and responsibility recognizing Problems of network crime Lack of Information Technology law Figure 2: Challenges and Obstacles in e-Government.
Technical Impacts In order to introduce and promote e-Government, the first and very important step is to construct the relevant IT infrastructure. This is a requirement very similar to the relationship between advances in urban development and the construction of appropriate road infrastructure. Furthermore, system and security requirements, such as integrity, secure payment mechanism,21 and promotion of security mechanism, are pertinent to e-Government as well. Political Impacts As is evident from Figure 2, there are many political issues that have to be considered. In this aspect, the services and processes need careful consideration.
If the government can provide a rich variety of different services (e-Justice for example) it will be more acceptable and convenient to users. From the user’s point of view, process standardization is a must and the simple principle “easy-to-use” has to be kept. Finally, the agreements of reparations, authority, and responsibilities have to be clearly formulated and recognized in order to protect the user’s right. Cultural Impacts From this perspective, the challenges and obstacles in e-Government bring a lot of difficulty because it involves the human psychological factor.
Therefore, the Government should not make any mistakes here, or otherwise it fails. Furthermore, the important principle??”easy-to-use”??has a great influence on the success of government. This principle could advertise and promote e-Government and it will allow more people to use the e-Government services. In short, even illiterate people can use e-Government without any worries. Legal Impacts Irish aspect embraces a lot of problems related to networking crime and security threats,25 such as hacker attacks, viruses, masquerades of unauthorized identity, and computer forgery.
Furthermore, there is a shortage of relevant law in Information Technology. Critical Success Factors in e-Government In accordance with the e-Government challenges and obstacles described in the previous section, the critical success factors (SF) in e-Government have to be investigated thoroughly. Therefore, we demonstrated thirteen CIFS in e-Government, as illustrated in Figure 3. These CIFS in e-Government are considered from a comprehensive view, including users, process, hardware/software, and legal views.
From the user’s perspective, the government has to be greatly supportive and promoting first of all. Furthermore, it should have a high acceptance of users, clearly 14 mined authority and responsibility of users and it has to enhance the user’s Information technology skills. Besides, the diversification of electronic means is very conferencing, and video telephones. From the process view, high security, standardization and knowledge management are a must for e-Government; then come the provision of specific services and the emphasis of its quality.
Furthermore, the establishment of national User’s view CIFS in the e-Government 11) Great support and promotion from the 15) Standardization 16) Clearly defined authority and responsibility of users 7) Provide specific services and emphasize its laity 18) National authentication center 19) National file management center 110) Popularity of IT infrastructure construction 11 1) Enhance the user’s information skill 112) High integrity and high domination of the a-Government systems 11 3) Diversification of electronic messages 114) Knowledge management Hardware/Software view Figure 3: CIFS in e-Government from a Comprehensive View.
Legal view Process view rent and its policies Z) Acceptance of users – easy to use 13) Legality and protection of law 14) High security 15 authentication centre is an essential requirement, so as the users could use the revise with their personal identities and all transactions are recorded in the national file management centre in order to protect the electronic documents from any damage.
From the legal point of view, it is necessary to legislate for legitimacy; of view, popularizing the IT infrastructure construction is essential for e-Government. In addition, it is important to enhance the integrity and the dominance of the e- Government system. Research Issues Sq to the future research work, the authors have outlined some research issues for further detailed consideration as follows. Included are security issues, issues of revise provided, and the e-Government model.