Deceitful in masking his intent, Augustus acted as if he was reconstituting the Republic, using this as a device to conceal his intent, creating a model of covert dictatorship, birthing the age of the Roman Emperor, coercing and manipulating the people and senate, revolutionaries the underlying power structure of the Roman government. The reign of Augustus was a clear turning point in European history with Augustus systematically creating a model of covert dictatorship that was to be followed by subsequent Roman Emperors.
Through manipulation, coercion and militaristic strength, Augustus employed a piecemeal strategy that evolutionists the underlying power structure of the Roman government. Under the facade of restoring the republic, Augustus increased his power, wealth and influence, stabilizing and establishing a Rome of greater equality, efficiency and profitability than ever before. However, such improvements came at the expense of many civil liberties. Although claimed in the Rest Gestate Augustus did not restore the republic.
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He did however; incorporate proven and currently functioning aspects of the old republic, replacing those which had failed and improving upon the historical inadequacies of previous Roman governance. Augustus established the clandestine dictatorial rule that would mark the beginning of the age of the Emperor. Rome at the outset was a city state under the government of kings with dictatorships always a temporary expedient-3 As such, the political climate in which Augustus (then Octavia) entered was one of uncertainty, instability, corruption and discontent.
A political structure that required a certain aspect of political delicacy, coercion and in certain areas, an autocratic style of governance for which Octavia was well suited. Although suggested by Cassias, Octavia did not have absolute contract nor did he require or necessarily aspire for such. 12 Augustus RAG, 34. 1, in Cooley, A. , 2009, p. 98 Tactics Annals 1. 1 3 Tactics Annals 1. 1 4 Did cassias, 53. 16. 1-2 Octavia understood the importance of correcting past failures.
In order to efficiently and effectively restore faith in the Roman state he would require power and influence far exceeding that of a position available under the old republican structure. Absolute power was required however; this could not be achieved with public or senatorial awareness. A more deceitful, manipulative method must be adopted in order to achieve such an outcome as overt displays of autocracy traditionally lead to senate resentment in Rome. Hence, control of the senate would initially be required.
More importantly, if Octavia was in fact attempting to correct flaws of his predecessors, did he ever consider restoring the republic to its original state? Situations claimed he twice thought of restoring the republics however, it must be considered that Activation’s idea of restoring the republic in thought and in planning, differed considerably from that of the old republic. The rotational structure of the republic had worked for a time in the past however, ultimately failed. A new and improved structure was required.
The political delicacy for which Romeos first Emperor (although never referred as this in his lifetime) was renowned for made the transition from oligarchy to autocracy appear almost seamless to his political contemporaries. However, this is not to say the Roman senate were not aware of this; the position of Octavia during the early participate developed much more organically than anyone could ever have expected. The desire for subtle, gradual change is ordered in the fact that Octavia spent considerable time acquiring the powers associated with the participate.
Spoon being voted censorial powers in BBC Octavia attended to all business of the empire with more zeal than ever-6 However, this agreement was flawed; military rivals remained a threat. More power was required. Octavia required a solution to silence these threats. He achieved this in BBC when he went so far as to summon the magistrate and the senate to his house, and submit an account Of the general condition Of the empires, and then through a great display of political tact, resigned. The senate implored Octavia to stay in office by offering him a 5 6 Situations, T. , 28. 1-2 Did Cassias, 53. 21. 1-2 7 Situations, T. 28. 1-2 new set of powers, and a new title, the senate in accord with the people of Rome hails thee Father of thy Country. 8 Octavia reluctantly and humbly accepted; ‘Having attained my highest hopes, Fathers of the Senate, what more have to ask of the immortal gods than that I may retain the same unanimous approval of your to the very end of my life. ‘ 9 Augustus was born. The threat from military rivals was silenced however, several flaws still existed. More power was required. Power far exceeding that of any role available under that of the republic. In BBC he was awarded tribunal potentates and emporium maims.
He had now reached a state of political perfection. A state he arguably and narcissistically deemed necessary to establish a Rome of greater equality, efficiency and profitability, a state in which he could covertly dictate. The Participate was made a permanent establishment; his rule would only end in death. Changes were still required, past mistakes must be corrected, time was poor. His mission was nearing completion. Rome was now under the autocratic rule of Augustus, the senate and the people were none the wiser. The republic was far from restored, the republic could not be restored, the republic was flawed.
The people and the senate must not know. Rome required further improvements. Augustus, on several occasions persisted in his attempts to allow institutions and magistrates to correct their failures. However, it was evident the unspecific guidelines to which these inefficient areas operated under impeded attempts to rectify deficiencies which ultimately lead to their demise. Restructuring was required. Traditional thaws under the republican Structure were exhausted and inadequate. Therefore, swift and efficient action was necessary and subsequently administered. Control of the corn supply failed.
Augustus intervened and administered it in such a way that within a few days freed the entire community from pressing fears and dangers. Nan equestrian prefect was appointed; detailed and specific guidelines were defined. The problem was resolved swiftly and efficiently. The republican process had failed, Augustus had succeeded. 89 Situations, T. , 58. 2-3 Stetson’s, T. , 58. 2-3 10 Augustus RAG, 5. 2, in Cooley, m, 009, p. 62 Augustus similarly intervened with the Roman fire service. Institutions and magistrates were afforded multiple opportunities to address their inefficiencies and failures.
Once again, lack of clearly defined responsibilities and poor management forced the intervention of Augustus. An equestrian prefect was appointed; specific and detailed frameworks were established. A pattern emerges contrary to Cassias’ suggestion that Augustus had absolute control of all matters. 1 1 Yes, Augustus possessed the necessary power required to control the aforementioned areas of concern however; chose initially to follow the political procedure of the republic encouraging and possibly hoping these areas did not require his administration.
Thus, we bear witness to Aliquots affording processes of the old republic ample opportunity to prove adequate and capable however, consequent autocratic actions are implemented as deemed necessary to address the inadequacies and deficiencies of the old republic. Past mistakes were corrected; the traditional republican framework was improved, it was not restored, Augustus possessed power far greater than any other man, more power than any one man could possibly possess in a republic.
Support Of the senate proved essential in aiding the gradual acquisition Of power that Augustus would require in order to found the Roman Empire, this would not be an easy task. Augustus possessed all required traits, power and finances for such a task however, displayed restraint in tackling such a massive undertaking. Why, if he already possessed the tools required to complete this task was such restraint implemented? Augustus was intelligent, Augustus realized the bigger picture, Augustus believed he was the solution.
His gradual political ascension did raise suspicions in the senate; they would interdict Augustus if they had the opportunity. 12 Senators were a very real threat. Upon acquiring military governance in all provinces and control vast aspects of the treasury this was all that could potentially threaten his intent of absolute control. The senate must not only support Gaul_Just, they must be under his control. 1112 Did Cassias, 53. 16. 1-2 Situations, T. , 54. 1-2 Retention of the electoral process it is true, continued to sit in judgment as before, 13 facilitating the appearance Augustus was restoring the rep blip.
However, this process was susceptible to corruption due to pressure in intention for important magistrates and consulship. Augustus intervened in BBC electing a law of ambition preventing those found guilty of electoral corruption from holding office for a period of five years. The system was still flawed, corruption was still evident, modifications were required, but how and by what method should they be implemented? Nascent in his address to Caesar recommends certain positions retain the electoral process out of regard for the institutions of our fathers and to avoid the appearance of making a complete change in the constitution. 4 However, continues suggesting he but make all of the appointments 5 himself as the plebs and people will quarrel over theme 6 and the senators will use them to further their own private ambitions. 17 Could these suggestions be adopted? There are certain similarities in the resulting electoral process post ADD when a law (possibly inspired by Augustus) demanding the procedure for the commits be renewed with several other favorable outcomes included for Augustus came into effect.
The commits would now vote first, elections would continue, the institutions are still in place however, now worked in practical terms affecting election outcomes. The ideals of popular sovereignty and elections remained however, are tailored in such a way Augustus can make known his preferences. As a result Augustus was able to influence outcomes of the elections through publicly endorsing and petitioning on behalf of preferred candidates. Control of the electoral process was now in the hands of Augustus. Toward the end of his life, Augustus’ influence was insurmountable.