Legislative – power to make laws and o frame public policies Executive – power to execute, enforce, and administer law Judicial – power to interpret laws, determine meaning of laws, and to settle disputes that arise within the society State-a body of people living in a defined territory, organized politically (government), and with the power to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority Every state in the world possesses four characteristics, each of which may vary widely from state to state.
Population Territory Sovereignty Government Large or small, every state must be inhabited – that is, have a population. Every state must have land, with known and recognized borders. The state has absolute power within its territory. It can decide its own foreign and domestic policies. Government is the mechanism through which a state makes and enforces its policies. Government-the institution through which a society makes and enforces public policies Democracy-supreme political authority rests with the people.
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Direct (Pure) Indirect (Representative) Occurs when the will of the people is translated into laws directly by the people. Works only on a small, local level. A group of person chosen by the people to express the will of the people. Widely used on a national, State, and local level. Example: Town meetings Example: Legislator votes Dictatorship-exists where those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the people. Oligarchy Autocracy Government in which the power to rule is held by a small, usually self-appointed elite.
Government in which a single person holds unlimited power. Example: Soviet Union (Communist Party) Example: Hitler Distribution of Power Power can be distributed between central (national) and local governments in three efferent ways. Federal Government -U. S. A Confederate Government-confederate Army Unitary Government-Great Britain Central Local Powers of government are divided between a central government and several local governments. The National government and the State are co-equal partners in the federal system.
Is an alliance of independent states Most power belongs to the local (regional) governments. The central government has only limited power. All powers held by the government belong to a single, central government Power resides with the central government, which creates local overspent. Most common form of government. Parliamentary Executive branch is made up of the prime minister or premier Prime minister and cabinet members are a part of the legislative branch The chief executive is chosen by the leading party in the legislature.
Example: Costa Rica Presidential Separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches. Branches are independent of one another, but coequal. Chief executive is chosen independently of the legislature. Example: USA Limited Government-basic principle of American government which states that overspent is restricted in what it may do and each individual has rights that government cannot take away Representative Government-system of government in which public policies are made by officials selected by the voters and held accountable in periodic elections.
Ordered Government-orderly regulation of relationships between states or colonist, to organize an government. Petition of Rights-the document prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles (1st) of England 1682;challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land.
Federalist-favored the ratification of the constitution (old constitution-new constitution) People-Alexander Hamilton and James Madison Reasons-Articles are too weak, Need for a stronger national government Anti- Federalist -opposed the ratification of the constitution (old constitution- new constitution) People-Patrick Henry, John Hancock, and Samuel Adams Reasons-States can’t print money, national government is too powerful, Bill of rights Magna Cart- Great Charter forced upon King John of England by his barons in 1215; established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute and guaranteed trial by he Jury and due process of law to the nobility.
Bicameral Legislature-a legislature made up of 2 houses Nun-Cameral-a legislature made up of 1 house Bill of Rights-first ten rights in the Constitution Elastic Clause-Article 1 Section 8,Clause 18- stretched overtime for so many different situations: to make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or Officer thereof. Delegated Powers – is only those powers delegated (granted) to “The National Government” in the Constitution. Expressed Powers Actually written into the Constitution.