As one of the largest growing economies in the world, China, as a developing country, is now experiencing similar problems that other developed nations faced in their past developing phase. Environmental pollution, deforestation, unemployment and bribery issues are common in China, and China’s ability to progress at a rapid pace has been affected by these problems.
Out of all these problems, the issue of water pollution in China shall be addressed in his report due to the fact that Japan also faced a similar issue in its own past a couple decades ago in its industrialization phase. The first part of this report introduces the history of China’s economy, where it will focus on how China has been able to progress so rapidly in the last five decades. The second part concentrates on water pollution itself and the consequences that have risen from this issue. After that, an introduction of Japan’s water pollution problem and its solution is given.
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Additionally, a comparison is made between the two countries, and an implementation plan would be given. History of Chinese Economy Recently, China’s economy experienced rapid growth and its GAP (gross domestic product) was the second largest all over the world in 2012. The figure below summarizes the GAP growth rate of China from 1961 to 201 1. World bank (updated May 15 201 3) There are four main points of history from the figure worth pointing out in the Chinese economy. Firstly, in 1958, China experienced a failure in its economy.
Before 1958, there was a positive and stable growth rate for its GAP where it was able to support the former Soviet Union, but after that, its GAP fell into the negatives. From 1958 to 1961, China experienced a very rapid pace of economic growth, and this period was known as the “Great Leap Forward”. The second main drop in GAP can be seen during the years of 1967 and 1 968, where China experienced a depression period which was caused by the Cultural Revolution of Mao Zee Dong, China’s then political leader.
The third main point of change occurred when Chairman Mao passed away and a full-scale recovery of China’s economy was put into place after 1978. This reformation and the introduction of opening-up policies were started by the next leader of China, Eden Ixia Ring. After this period, China has been experiencing positive economic growth, but the fourth main point that is important occurred in the late sass and early sass. The economy was not doing very well and China started a counter-inflation measure which tightened the economy from 1988 to 1989.
Not only that, the Attainment Square protest which occurred in July 1989 where the Chinese people who wanted political demagnification flooded the area was also a fundamental reason. These people were able to gain military control over the Chinese government, resulting in government confusion and a fall in foreign investment. This caused a temporary decline in the Chinese market economy. However, through Dens efforts, the riot was settled in 1 992, and China was able to grow its economy rapidly.
Another event that is worth pointing out is that China was able to join the WTFO (world trade organization) in 2001. This rapid economy growth in China has resulted in many benefits, but it has also caused problems in terms Of environmental destruction and resource management. Water pollution in China: Problems and Issues In China, the water pollution problem have grown to such an extent that the World Bank has issued a warning for sustainability issues. Almost 500 million people in rural China do not have safe water to use as it has been contaminated by both human and industrial waste. In August 2009, a thousand villagers gathered outside a government office in Counted township in Human Province to protest the presence of the Change Chemical factory, which villagers say has polluted water used to irrigate rice and vegetables and caused at least two deaths in the area. ” “One third of peasants in the village Bedaub are mentally ill or seriously ill. Women report high numbers of miscarriages and many people die in middle age. The culprit is believed to be drinking water drawn from the Yellow River downstream from a fertilizer plant. During the summer of 2011, it has been reported that of all state-monitored rivers, only 57% of these are suitable for human contact. Around 250 million Chinese people have been estimated to be threatened by extremely polluted “In the village of Humidifying??where a once-clear stream is now water. Greenish black from factory wastes??cancer accounted for 11 of the 17 deaths in 2003. Both the river and well water in the village??the main source of drinking water??have an acrid smell and taste produced by pollutants impede upstream by tanneries, paper mills, a huge MS plant, and other factories.
Cancer had been rare when the stream was clear. ” “China’s three great rivers??the Yanking, Pearl and Yellow River??are so filthy that it is dangerous to swim or eat fish caught in them. Parts of the Pearl River in Gunshot are so thick, dark and soupy it looks like one could walk across it. ” “More than 80 percent of the Ha-Huh Yellow river basin is chronically polluted. In October 2006, a one kilometer section of the Yellow River turned red in the city of Languor in Gangs Province as result of a “red and smell)/’ charges from a sewage pipe.
In December 2005, six tons of diesel oil leaked into a tributary of the Yellow River from a pipe that cracked because of freezing conditions. It produced a 40 mile long slick. Sixty-three water pumps had to be shut down, including some in Jinn, the capital Of Sandhog Province. ” “In recent years pollution has become a problem on the Yellow River. By one count 4,000 of China’s 20,000 petrochemical factories are on the Yellow River and a third of all fish species found in the Yellow River have become extinct because of dams, falling water levels, pollution and over fishing’
To better understand how serious the problem of water pollution is in China, the amount of losses can be put into numbers. Industrial waste, chemical fertilizers and raw sewage have been identified as the main causes of water pollution, and it accounts for half of the SIS$69 billion attributed to pollution costs every year. According to a research, Chinese waters experiences 1 1. 7 million pounds Of organic pollutants every day, about 3. 4 times the amount Japan faces. The waters around Though in Jagging, the home of Highs Pharmaceutical, one of China’s largest drug makers, are so contaminated with ledge and chemicals that fishermen complain their hands and legs become ulcerated, and in extreme cases need amputation. Studies have shown that people who live around the city have high cancer and birth defect rates. ” Not only that, the Chinese people consumes water that has high and dangerous levels of arsenic, fluorine and sulfate chemicals.
It has been estimated that more than 50% of the Chinese population consume contaminated water, while around 20 million people drink well water with high radiation levels. Due to these reasons, the liver, stomach and esophageal cancers have been directly linked to China’s water pollution. According to the World Bank, 60,000 people die each year from diarrhea, bladder and stomach cancer and other diseases directly caused by water-borne pollution. A study by the WHO came with a much higher figure” “There are said to be around 1 00 cancer villages along the Ha River and its tributaries in Henna Province, especially on the Shaking River.
Death rates on Ha River are 30 percent higher than the national average. In 1 995, the government declared that water from a Ha tributary was undrinkable and the water supply for 1 million people was cut off. The military had to truck in eater for a month until 1,111 paper mills and 413 other industrial plants on the river were shut down” “More than 130 residents of two villages in Axing Province in southern China were poisoned by arsenic-contaminated water. Arsenic showed up in their urine.
The source is believed to be waste from a nearby metallurgy factory’ Japan’s Water Pollution Problem Since the Meijer Period (1868 – 191 2), when Japan finally opened itself up to the international world, it experienced a rapid pace of modernization and industrialization. This resulted in many benefits for Japan, including the introduction and increased in the living standards, but it also caused many different problems, including environmental pollution. Accompanying the growth of Japan’s industries was the gradual increase in water pollution.
For example, mine wastes were dumped into the Waters River, resulting in damages to human health and riverside rice paddies, an occurrence that is similar to China’s current experience. During the post-war period of industrial reconstruction, the water pollution problems worsened and this time major disputes were brought up and some local governments began to set up environmental laws to combat this problem. One of the most famous cases of a downturn in Japan’s society would be the Inanimate disease, a type of poisoning caused by industrial mercury pollution, which has killed more than 1500 people from 1 956 to 2001.
In the 1 sass, Japan experienced a condition that is now seen in China, the rivers in Japan were contaminated with sewage, household wastewater and other pollutants. Many urban rivers were polluted with the E. Coli bacteria and people who swam in the rivers had a high risk of becoming sick. Japan’s solution to the water pollution In 1 958, the first real environmental law called “Studentship” with regards to the quality of water was established. However, this law differs from the current environmental protection law in Japan. Studentship” contained a “harmony article”, meaning that the promotion of the conservation of the living environment had to be balanced with and would not compromise the promotion of economic development. Not only that, in comparison with today’s laws, the “Studentship” was very loose. Therefore, there were still some diseases resulting from water pollution throughout the entire nation such as the Inanimate disease in the late sass. As a result, this “harmony article” Was abolished and a new law called ‘Suishitsuodakuboshihou”, or the “Water Pollution Control Law” was implemented in 1970.
This new law tightened controls on regulations of drainage. In 1993, the “Basic Environmental Law” was established and its purpose was to comprehensively and systematically promote policies for environmental conservation to ensure healthy and cultured living for both the present and future generations of the nation as well as to contribute to the welfare of mankind. Through the detailed rules and policies that this law contains in addition to the frequent assessments of the environment and preparation of water and sewage, its effects are able to be kept and sustained in today’s Japanese societies.
Although the implementations of laws were able to allow the Japanese society to find a base for its water quality measures, these would not have been adequate if it weren’t for the other measures that Japan used to counter water pollution. One method was the used of freshwater mussels. These water creatures were used to clean up the polluted rivers in Japan and were able to clean around 180 liters of water per day. The Chicago mussels, capable of producing pearls, were able to not only improve the water quality of very dirty rivers such as the Denominational River in Osaka, but they also produced pearls that could be sold.
Another method that was used in the Sky-toccata River in Hiroshima to clean up the contaminated water, sludge and foul smell was the usage of “infiltration pillars” made from used coal ash taken from power plants. These pillars helped to decompose the noxious sludge, which get rid of the bad smell and also improves the water quality to such an extent that a variety Of eater creatures such as crabs and freshwater clams have returned to promote the biodiversity of the ecosystem.
Conclusion and Solution Three methods that Japan used to solve its water pollution problem have been mentioned above. The first method, implementing environmental laws, exists in China. However, due to its huge bribery issue, even with the implementation of laws, companies can get away by paying their way off to the corrupted officials. When it comes to the rural villages in the downstream of rivers and companies located in the upstream who dump their industrial asset into the nearest river, there isn’t much that can be done.
The second method, using freshwater mussels to help clean the rivers, is also currently being used in China. However, this is being implemented on a very small scale, and needs to be implemented on a larger scale in order to conquer this water pollution problem. The third method, which was to use infiltration pillars, is recommended. This will not only help to improve the water quality, but it would also improve the relationship between the government and the companies who operate power plants with their collaboration in the long run.
Although this may end in high costs for China in the short run, it is a necessity for China to do so in order for it to not only overcome the water pollution problem it is now facing, but also save future high costs associated with coping with the consequences of water pollution.