Nursing theorist concept Application in the Nursing practice Abstract Nursing theorist Virginia Henderson (1897-1996), often referred to as the “First Lady of Nursing”, developed a nursing model based on the 14 components of activities of daily living. The paper discusses the importance of applying these components to the nursing practice. She emphasized the importance of increasing the patient’s independence so that progress after hospitalizing would not be delayed (Henderson 1991).
Henderson Theory and the main concepts are discussed using a case study approach on a specific client to better explore the theory and how it influenced the nursing practice. Henderson principles and practices of Nursing laid a ground work for the nursing process that is still being used today in various fields of nursing. Henderson Concept of Nursing in a clinical setting: Application in Nursing As health care professionals, nurses are called upon to provide care to their patients according to individualized needs.
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It is upon the nurse to care, assist and support the patient based on the 14 components of daily activities as out lined by Henderson theory. Nurses are called to provide a 24-her service that helps human nines with their essential daily activities when they lack the strength, knowledge, or will, to carry them out unaided and to work towards the development of a healthy independence. This intimate and essential service is in the author’s opinion, the universal element in the concept of nursing.
Henderson argues that the most successful preparation of nurses will always include whatever gives them the broadest possible understanding of humanity and the world in which they live. Henderson concept of nursing gives nurses an opportunity to deliver expert care ND to have satisfaction from their effort, hasten the person’s recovery, help a person cope with a handicap, or die in peace when death is inevitable (Henderson, 1966). The Henderson Nursing concept of Nursing Henderson called her definition of nursing her “Concept” (Henderson 1991). Henderson (1996) book, The Nature of Nursing.
A definition and its implications for practice, research, and education. New York: Macmillan. , maintained that the unique function of the nurse is to help individuals, sick or well, to perform those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to a peaceful death) that they would perform unaided if they had the necessary strength, will or knowledge, and to do so in such a way as to help those individuals gain independence as soon as possible. With the definition along with her 14 basic components of nursing activities, the theorist brought tremendous changes in the nursing field of Practice.
These components include: Ensuring that the patient breathe normally, eat and drink adequately, Eliminate body waste, move and maintain desirable posture, sleep and rest, select suitable clothes-dress and undress, maintain proper body temperature, keep the odd clean and well groomed while protecting the integument, avoid danger and Injuries Trot ten environment, communicate effectively welt toners In expressing fears, emotions, needs and opinions, worship according to one’s faith, work in such a way that there is a sense of accomplishment and include play or participate in various forms of recreation.
Henderson emphasized the importance of increasing the patient’s independence so that progress after hospitalizing would not be delayed (Henderson, 1991). With these 14 human needs she created a frame work for nurses to assess clients, plan, implement and evaluate care. Her model of theory was easy to apply to the nursing process. The definition of the Concept describes the nurse’s role as substitutive (doing for the person), supplementary (helping the person), complementary (working with the person), with the goal of helping the person become as independent as possible.
A case study approach is going to be used to better understand concept and show how it is the foundation of the nursing process still used today. Case Study Mr.. Jones is a 64 year old well nourished man with a history of long-standing non- insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (MINDS). He had an open heart -surgery bypass graft 7 weeks ago. The graft site got infected and had to undergo an emergency surgery to improve circulation to his left lower limb. Mr.. Jones is relieved that his leg was saved and he is now being prepared for discharge.
He wants to regain his strength so that he can start doing the things he loves. Currently Mr.. Jones needs moderate assistance depending on his level of pain or fatigue and ambulates with a walker. Mr.. Jones still needs help with activities of daily living. He has urinary and bowel control problems as side effects from multiple antibiotics. Mr.. Jones is married and has 4 grown children that provide him with love, care, and support. The nursing staff is teaching Mrs.. Jones how to perform sterile wound care for her husband as he will need dressing changes three times a day, blood glucose monitoring and a healthy diet.
Social service is helping to keep communication channels open between Mr.. Jones, his family and the nursing staff to maintain psychological and emotional health. Assessment Henderson 14 components are used to determine the need of the patient. Mr.. Jones is breathing normally. He is drinking and eating well. He is not healing well due to an infection to the graft site which necessitated him to go back for surgery. He is on antibiotics that caused him to have a disturbed elimination process. He is using a walker for ambulation and not fast enough to get to the bathroom.
He is depending on nursing staff for assistance or sometimes his wife. Pain from surgical sites may make Mr.. Jones slow to get to the toilet or become more dependent on nursing staff to help in him around. This scenario can cause Mr.. Jones plunge deeper into depression. A thorough pain assessment is crucial in his involvement in the plan of are. He is a Diabetic patient teaching is required to increase awareness to the fact that healing, especially wound healing is slower in people who are diabetic. Assess nutritional needs to meet his condition as a diabetic and to promote healing.
Diagnosis and Planning Self care deficits are identified during assessment and therefore in this phase of nursing, a plan is put in place to find his ability to meet own needs with or without assistance, taking into consideration strength, will or knowledge (Henderson 1966). Urinary and bowel control problem puts him at risk for skin breakdown, his first line T attends Ana more Intentions. A Electrodes elongation process also Impalas wound healing due to possible contact of urine and stool with the wound. Diarrhea can lead to problems with electrolyte imbalance if not resolved.
Managing urine and bowel problems through bladder training and change in diet, managing, controlling pain and promoting wound healing to facilitate a speedy recovery. Involve Mr.. Jones in physical and occupational therapy to a maximum level of independence and dignity. Intervention This is phase where the nursing practice plans are implemented, prevent setbacks and maintain emotional and physical stability. It is a phase through which nursing actions recognize and promote the client’s maximum level of wellness (Carney- Nunnery 2012).
Although no problems are mentioned with the respiratory system, it is important to maintain adequate oxygenation for any patient. Inadequate oxygenation can damage the body system organs. The nurse has the duty to maintain proper body temperature and ensure proper sleep and rest. Mr.. Jones needs to have his wounds resolved. Have his dressing changes done as prescribed to promote healing and prevent infections that would keep longer on antibiotic therapy. The family should be involved during dressing changes so that they can learn the technique of a sterile dressing and be well equipped upon Mr..
Joneses discharge. During this clinical setting the family should be taught the signs and symptoms of infection so that they can identify them when they are discharged from hospital and notify the physician in a timely manner. Teach the family about the medications being administered and the importance of taking the drugs as prescribed. Incorporate proboscis to his diet to restore the friendly bacteria or intestinal flora that regulates stool consistence. Yogurt with meals or Acidophilus as a supplement can be integrated in his meal plan.
Restoring his elimination process is to restore some of his dignity improving his sense of well being. Since aging has an effect on the renal system, dosages of medication excreted by the Kidneys need in Mr.. Joneses case may be need to be reviewed or adjusted (Sue E. Miner 2006, p. 641). Since Mr.. Jones is still ambulating with a walker, the Physical/Occupational therapy department has to work closely with the nursing department. As mobility improves, level of intolerance has to be reported to the nurses.
If there are any signs of decreased tolerance then the nurse has to review Mr.. Joneses pain level and medication he is taking. Teach Mr.. Jones and his family how to check glucose levels, the importance of protecting his feet while ambulating and to have his family bring him proper fitting shoes. Encouraging physical therapy helps prevent lung infiltrates that lead to pneumonia or skin breakdown that would retard the healing process. Simple home exercises should be included in the physical therapy schedule so that Mr.. Jones can continue doing them when he is discharged home.
Social Services are involved as well to ensure that Mr.. Jones has his needs met even at home and provide the family with all the information for all those services in the community that may be beneficial to Mr.. Jones and the family. Mr.. Jones showed signs of depression due to the prolonged hospital stay. It is important to have effective communication between the nurse, the patient, and the family so that emotions, fears, and needs can be expressed. In so doing, the nurse’s role to make the patient complete or whole would be fulfilled.
Evaluation During ten national stay, evaluation AT care leverage Is a continuous process Tanat enables the nursing team to check whether the interventions are meeting his need. Successful outcomes of nursing are based on the speed with which or degree to which the patient performs independently the activities of daily living (Henderson, 1991). Changes are made if there are any signs of slowed patient progress or non compliance. Check the progress of wound healing, if the urinary and bowel problems are resolved, whether Mr.. Jones is less dependent on his walker to get around.