People all over the world are migrating to cities in search of jobs and cultural advantages, especially in Asia. This has resulted in the formation of huge megalopolis areas and surrounding peer-urban environs. In China, a 40 million urban area is planned. The effects of cities on people are not well- understood. Cities require huge amounts of energy, resulting in large quantities of waste products, causing unsustainable environments. Cities are sources of air, water and soil pollution.
Light and noise pollution are now known to adversely affect urban people. The role of urban heat islands and air pollution, PM. And ozone, on human health is beginning to emerge. Lack of green space may have psychological effects for urban dwellers. We began to explore the nature of the urban environment and pollution on human health and well-being at PEPPY in Boston in June of 2010. This very successful conference identified many areas Of urban life that warranted further investigation.
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PEPPY aims to continue the exploration of the rubberiest are the source of numerous dangerous gases, particularly vehicles (passenger cars, lorries, buses, etc) which produce, in particular, carbon dioxide (CA), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SIS), nitrous oxides KNOX), benzene, ozone, etc. In addition to fine particles emitted by diesel motors which represent a serious threat to human health. Heating installations use fossil fuels which also pollute the air of our cities.
However, in numerous urban agglomerations, the main source of the deterioration of air quality is from industrial facilities which spew out veritable poisons into the air, which is then breathed by riverside residents. Smog, which so commonly caps our famous megalopolises is a terrifying palpable demonstration of atmospheric pollution . An environment and how we can begin to create a healthy and livable environment in cities. For more than a century, cities have functioned as super magnets, attracting millions of rural residents to their proverbial shores.
Each of these individuals has needed water to live, that is, to drink, to prepare food, and also to wash up and for other basic needs. Cities under constant development must therefore constantly increase their water resources and their water treatment capacities. In numerous countries, this has created nearly insurmountable problems and hundreds of millions of human beings are not guaranteed daily access to potable water ; as regards wastewater the lack of effective collection ND treatment facilities means that wastewater is often quite simply dumped back into Nature, often into the ocean, which creates serious and lasting pollution problems.
Lest we not forget the cleansing effect of rainwater which wash numerous pollutants into the ground and other water sources, including lakes and oceans. By grouping millions of individuals on small surfaces, cities in fact multiply problems related to waste management, this waste yet another source Of ground pollution. As such, we find great amounts of numerous pollutants in the ground including : lead, arsenic, chromium, recurs, hydrocarbons, dioxins, acids, solvents, etc. It is probably superfluous to mention the great dangers that these toxic substances present to humans, animals and to Nature, more generally.
Unfortunately, there are other sources of pollution created by cities, notably noise and light pollution. Automobile traffic, in addition to creating considerable gaseous emissions, is also a source of considerable noise. In cities, millions of people live in an environment which is never quiet as cars, motorcycles, buses, lorries add to the noise created by trains, tubes, planes, etc. A lack of privacy and inhabitant insist exposes citizens to additional bothersome noise – from their neighbors as they engage in professional or recreational activity, as the case may be.
The result is an increased level of stress for persons that are exposed to this, and a considerable decrease in their quality of life. The inhabitants of most cities in the 21 SST century live in an electromagnetic В?? fog В?? due to waves emitted from more and more electronic devices. Mobile telephone networks, with their antennas and their devices (mobile telephones), wireless internet networks (Wife, etc. ) with their computers, radios, televisions in addition to arsenal appliances, such as microwave ovens, etc . Create this fog.
In short, a long time ago cities could offer a quality of life better than that Of the countryside. However, nonstop growth in the number of urban inhabitants, resultant decreases in living space and the related exacerbation of pollution problems forces human society to reconsider the urban lifestyle. Rearranging the equation to put humankind at the centre, to offer humans decent living conditions and to imagine cities that respect both the environment and future generations, etc. A major challenge for the megalopolises of today and tomorrow.