Another way that time orientation differs is in whether a culture concentrates on the past, the present, or the future. Work and school orientation : People in united states are supposed to work , they are also expected to finish school o they can learn an occupation and support themselves in their adult life. E. G. The predominant culture in the united states stresses that everyone should be employed be employed productively (called the Protestant work ethic) and that work be a pleasure and valued in itself (as important as the product of the work).
Other culture do not value work in itself but see it as only a means to an end (you work to get money or food, not satisfaction). Family Orientation : Family structure and the roles of family members are other lifestyle that are culturally determined. Please see different types of families) Male and Female Roles : In most culture , man is the dominant figure. In such a culture, if approval for hospital admission or therapy is needed , the man is the one who gives this approval.
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In a culture in which men are very dominant and women are extremely passive, a woman may be unable to offer an opinion of her own health or be embarrassed to submit to a physical examination, especially from a male some cultures, the woman may be the dominant person in the family. The oldest woman in the home would be the one to give consent for treatment or hospital admission. Religion : Religion guides a person’s overall life philosophy. It influences how people feel about health and illness, what foods they eat, and their preferences about birth and death rituals.
E. G. Asks in Jehovah refused blood transfusion. Health Beliefs : Are not universal . It is generally assumed in developed in countries that illness is caused by documented factors such as bacteria, viruses, or trauma. In other countries, however, illness may be viewed primarily as punishment from God or an evil spirit, or as the work of a person who wishes to harm to the sick persons Nutrition Practices : Food and their methods of preparation are strongly culturally related. E. G.
Food and their methods of preparation are strongly culturally related Pain Responses : A person’s response to pain is a final category that is both individually and culturally determined Jacob et al. , 2008). Although all people may have the same threshold sensation (the amount of stimulus that results in pain), their pain threshold (the point at which the individual reports that a stimulus is painful) and pain tolerance (the point at which an individual withdraws from a stimulus) vary greatly.
Strategies to help recognize cultural influences on pain perception are to: a. Appreciate that the meaning of pain varies among cultures; b. Appreciate that not all people communicate or express their level of pain in the same way; c. Recognize that communication of pain may not even be acceptable within a culture; d. Develop an awareness of your personal values and beliefs and that they may affect how you respond to people in pain; and e. Use an assessment tool, such as 1-10 scale, to assist in measuring pain so you are certain that you are being objective as possible.