All 44 rivers in Kraal are highly polluted due to inflow of untreated domestic, industrial wastes and agriculture runoff. Most of the industries are near the thickly populated riversides, often near cities and towns. There is no efficient water treatment system in industries and city municipalities. Pollution level in some of the sites is far above permissible limits.
Close proximity of increasing numbers of leach pit latrines under varying soil conditions, late rite (midland) and sandy soils (coastal area); Non point resources of pollution in the catchments area including possible agricultural and surface run off, especially during the rainy season; Washing, bathing and other domestic activities around the open dug well sources, especially among the low income communities; Inadequate and irregular disinfection of drinking water supplies, including chlorination under AKA schemes; Inadequate testing and irregular monitoring of drinking water quality.
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Nobody seems to know, that only 15 Km away from Cochin, the “Queen of the Arabian Sea “, there is Lore Island, home to Kraal’s largest industrial cluster. Lore, an island of 1 1. 21 sq/km, on the Peppier River is home to more than 247 chemical industries, including the only EDT-producing facility in India. Most of these units have been here for the last fifty years and use extremely obsolete and polluting technologies.
Toxic pollution from heavy metals to chemicals and radioactivity is found in air, soil and in the Peppier River, which spreads he contamination to the Bemoaned Lake, Cochin and to the Arabian Sea. This leads to a large-scale devastation of aquatic life in the backwaters, the agricultural land and it is also affecting the health of the population in the area. The soil, water bodies and the wetlands in and around Lore have been contaminated with heavy metals like zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium and persistent organic pollutants like EDT.
Gas emissions let into the air include acid mists, ammonia and chlorine. The Panama ram, a tributary of the Cabana River and the Mahayanist River were found to be the most polluted rivers in the State with the presence of chemical and biological pollutants. Refuse from slaughterhouses and hospitals were also reaching into Panama ram. Insecticides, chemical fertilizers and other pollutants were also finding their way into the rivers. Fish death and fall in the fish population were also reported from here, the study said.