The right of a group to govern itself in its own state or territory Minority groups in a country can challenge if they think their right to self-determination isn’t satisfied Separatism or Autonomous Nationalism: A dissident minority that has a total or partial secession from the state as its primary goal -Ex: French-speaking Quebec wanted to secede from Canada; in October of 1 995 there was a referendum for this that failed only by a slight margin In Western Europe, the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Italy, and Spain have separatist political movements that have members that reject total control for regional autonomy- self government instead of complete independence Devolution: transfer of some central powers to regional or local governments Separatist movements affect other countries as well; they are expressions of regionalism Regionalism: minority group self-awareness and identification with a region rather than with the state -Ex.
Eastern European countries and the former USSR have regionalism that occurred after the fall of communism; this lead to a lot of wars and ew borders Ethnic Cleansing: the killing or forcible relocation of less powerful minorities -Ex. It occurred in Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and the Kosovo province of southern Serbia Recently, some European gov. want regional recognition and devolution. In 1986, 22 regional gov. were established In France. Spain has a program of devolution that Portugal Is starting to follow. Italy, Germany, and the Nordic countries are starting or developing slmllar methods. Two precondltlons are territory and nationality; 1 . The group has to be In a core of the national homeland nd seek to regain control powers they believe were rightfully theirs. 2.
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Certain cultural traits must provide a basis for the group’s perception of separateness, Identity, and unity; it could be anything from language to rellglon Other traits are peripheral location and social and economic inequality: troubled regions are usually think they can do better economically without restraints from the state Cooperation among States Countries are fragile and weaker than before Military attacks can occur at any time; many countries are now deciding to cooperate with others There is NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) Supranationalism Associations with other states lead to a new level of national power and independence Corporations and nongovernmental agencies operate in controlling ways -Ex.
Transnational corporations dominant in global markets limits the economic influence of individual countries Cyberspace and the Internet help create and maintain nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) There are more than 20,000 including Greenpeace, Amnesty International, and Doctors without Borders They influence national and international political and economic actions through petitions, ourt actions, and education This type of system traces back to the Ancient Greek world or the Hanseatic League of free German cities during European medieval time; new ones have actively been created since 1945 Supranationalism: comprised of associations or 3 or more states created for mucual benefit and to achieve share objectives Almost all countries are part of one, but all are members of the United Nations The United Nations and Its Agencies The UN is the only organization to try and be universal and the most ambiguous in trying to bring all nations together for world peace It expanded from 51 countries in 945 to 192 in 2009 It’s predecessor is the League of Nations which allows countries to discuss international problems The UN sponsors 40 agencies towards international cooperation like World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
Members aren’t surrendering sovereignty to the I-IN, and the UN isn’t allowed to enforce a world law The UN had a new concept of interventionism that helped protect countries in war and possibly prevent it Maritime Boundaries Inland waters of a country, like rivers and lakes are part of the country During most of human history, no nation controlled the oceans At the end of the 19th century, however, most coastal countries clamed 3 or 4 nautical miles The country controlled that part and things like customs regulations or enforcement of quarantine No laws of the sea existed, and none were needed until after WWI A League of Nations Conference for the Codification of International Law met in 1930, and discussed maritime legal matters; The Truman Proclamation was declared in 1945.
This allowed ountries to claim resources in the oceans An International Law of the Sea 150 countries tried to created a treaty that dealt with all matters on the laws of the sea A draft was created in 1982, called the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea There are 4 zones: -Territorial Sea: coastal states have sovereignty including fishing rights; vessels usually have the right of innocent passage -Contiguous Zone: to 24nm, coastal states don’t have sovereignty over these zones, but can enforce its laws and customs – Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ): up to 200nm, the states have the right to explore and aintained in this zone -High Seas: Beyond the EEZ, this is open to all the states and the resources are a free for all By the 1980s, most coastal countries used these laws, including the U. S.