Theory development surfaced in nursing because of its leader’s desire for nursing to be considered a profession, and then to help nurses increase their knowledge of practice, what it is and what it can be. Theories can help to identify a clearer picture of practice than using facts alone (Walker & Avant, 2005). The following paper will discuss three of these theories and their authors as they relate to currency and ability of use in practice settings. Orem’s Model of Self Care The International Orem Society for Nursing Science and Scholarship is a website that is dedicated to Orem’s model of self care.
It lists many sources for researching the theory, including library, textbook and other websites. Since the theory was developed in the late 1950s, Orem has published two additional books on concepts in practice: Nursing: Concepts of Practice and Concept Formalization: Process and Product. Several other books have been written by Sarah E. Allison, Kathie Renpenning, Ann Young and Susan G. Taylor based on Orem’s model (Orem-Society, nd). Orem’s model of self care concentrates on nurses caring for those that cannot care for themselves, or are not able to care for themselves up to their full functioning (Fitzpatrick & Whall, 2005).
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Orem’s model has many applications. The first that is the inpatient setting where people come to have others care for them, but nurses can promote self care through many outlets including cardiac rehabilitation or helping the chronically ill to adjust to their new functionality. I was interested to learn more about this model as it what we currently use at my institution. Watson’s Model of Caring Dr. Jean Watson developed the model of caring to simplify a guide to clinical practice. Her theory encouraged nurses to “…include caring and love in our work and our life… ” (Fitzpatrick & Whall, 2005, para. 6) and by doing so we would consider nursing as more than a job. We would consider it a life-giving and receiving career in which we could obtain “…a lifetime of growth and learning” (Fitzpatrick & Whall, 2005, para. 26). Dr. Watson developed the Watson Caring Science Institute that has a website devoted to her theory. The site provides an in depth discussion of the theory as well as links to many research articles that discuss the model of caring. Since the theory formation Dr. Watson has published Nursing: The Philosophy and Science of Caring (International Caritas Consortium, 2009).
This theory is applicable to all areas of nursing practice. Integrating the caring aspect into our work benefits us because it makes what we do more than a job, it makes it a life-changing career, and it benefits our patients because it helps us to care for the patient, not just the disease. I was drawn to this particular theory because I think that most people choose nursing as a career because they want to care for people and this model encompasses all aspects of care. King’s Conceptual System and Theory of Goal Attainment Imogene King presented the theory of goal attainment in early 1960s (Fitzpatrick & Whall, 2005).
The premise of this theory is that nurses have an interpersonal relationship with clients and they work to obtain certain health goals. There is a website devoted to King’s theory (King International Nursing Group) but you must be a member to gain full access. It gives a brief biography of Imogene King as well as an overview of her theory and a mission and purpose. Since its origination, Frey and Sieloff published Advancing King’s Systems Framework and Theory for Nursing advancing King’s original work (Fitzpatrick & Whall, 2005).
This model could be applicable to all aspects of nursing; that is with compliant and coherent patients who have adequate communication skills. This theory interests me because I am a very goal driven person and I believe that patients should be involved in their care. Nursing theories are sometimes further developed, but they generally do not become obsolete. Often, they are used to build new theories. Theories help to increase validity to the profession of nursing as well as provide a way for professional development. A nurse’s knowledge base can be greatly influenced by theory and therefore greatly benefit the client population.
References Fitzpatrick, J. J. , & Whall, A. L. (2005). Conceptual models of nursing: Analysis and application (4th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson. International Caritas Consortium. (2009). Watson caring science institute. Retrieved on November 28, 2009 from http://www. watsoncaringscience. org/ Orem Society. (nd). International Orem Society for Nursing Science and Scholarship retrieved on November 26, 2009 from http://www. orem-society. com/index. php/faq Walker, L. & Avant, K. (2005). Strategies for theory construction in nursing (4th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.