Terms and People to know Amino acids- pairs in DNA: Cytosine with Guanine and Adenine with Thymine Archie- DNA- Dona’s double structure allows replication Dust Bunnies- Unfamiliarity’s- laws of nature have not changed over time Snow line- Trace Fossils- Ozone- Steamrolling- Planet Embryos- Roding- Prokaryotic cells- last universal common actors, heat-loving, heterodox Cascara Point, Scotland- has the unconformity of angular unconformity Moraine- poor sorted glacial till Erratic- rocks dropped by glaciers C. Lye- Asia, Greenland- Basic 1. Unfamiliarity’s is that the laws of nature have not changed in the course of mime.
The present is the key to the past, so it helps geologists today find out about the worlds past. 2. Present is the key to the past 3. 4. 5. Climate 1 . Human activity has increased CO in the atmosphere causing the earth’s temperature to rise. The amount of greenhouse gases determines the earth’s climate. Low greenhouse gases can cause a decrease in temperature leading to an ice house and high greenhouse gases can cause an increase in temperature leading to hot house conditions. 2. Shrinking sea ice on global temperatures forces the sea level to rise 3. 4.
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The melting of glaciers affect Charleston by increasing the sea level, eventually flooding Charleston. 5. 6. Cool summers promote growth of glaciers 7. Long term swings between hot house and ice house conditions can be correlated with the amount of greenhouse gases. Without greenhouse gases, the earths average climate is -18 degrees Celsius. 8. Increase co, increase temperature 9. A moving body of ice and snow, lying mostly on land. Glaciers form where more snow accumulates in winter than melts in the summer. 10. Lobed is the fraction of solar energy (shortwave radiation) reflected from Earth back into space.
If higher mountains have more snow, there is an increase in lobed. 1 1 . The sun’s rays get absorbed into the ozone and lose energy that they cannot escape back out of the ozone, warming the earth’s temperature 12. Earth has seasons because the tilt of the earth is on an axis Time and Sediments 1 . Angular Unconformity: a group of rocks has been tilted and eroded and younger rocks are deposited on top. Unconformity Discomfort: irregular surface between beds reveals episode of erosion Unconformity Nonconformity: bedded rocks rest on an eroded surface of crystalline rocks (sedimentary on top of metamorphic) 2. Stereography is the name of the study of layered sedimentary rocks. 4. Principle of Superposition: the oldest strata lie at the bottom Principle of Original Horizontally: rocks were originally laid horizontally Principle of Original Lateral Continuity: similar rocks on opposite sides of a basin were once connected Sediments and Sedimentary Environment l. A. Alluvial Fans: b. Meandering rivers: not a straight channel. 2 components – the channel (with coarse material) and a flood plain (fine-grained material). Fast moving water erodes, slow moving water deposits. Position takes place on the point bar. Oxbow lakes are created when the flood plain is cut by the river creating a shorter path. Cut bank erodes sediment. C. Braided Streams: water drained from a glacier in a u-shaped valley. High energy gravel. Well rounded, well sorted gravel. Not common. Occurs near a mountain building area, lots of water (ice or glacial melt) to carry large rocks. D. Reefs: A biologically mediated wave resistant, build-up of calcium carbonate with associated sediments that form in shallow, tropical waters. Clear waters. Permian reef = ancient, dried up reef. E.
Deltas: have transitional environments (both marine and continental processes) water turns from high energy to low energy and drops all sediments. Coarse material drops first and finer material drifts out further Nile Delta: “classic” delta. Wave dominate (waves parallel to shore). Ganges River Delta: shore perpendicular islands. Tidal dominated. Mississippi Delta: delta projects into sea with a chicken foot pattern. River dominate. High to low energy f. Sand Dunes: fine grained sediment. Bigger the sand dunes, stronger the wind. Sand moves up the slope then slumps down the slip face (steep part) ripples. Joss beds result from transport by either water or wind and indicate ancient current directions. Beach dunes have symmetrical ripples. Barrier island outcrop: dried up beach/ancient beach. Has oysters in the marsh outcrop g. Glaciers: a moving body of ice and snow, lying mostly on land. Glaciers form where more snow accumulates in winter than melts in the summer. Moraine sediments (glacial till/Tillie), poorly sorted, huge beclouded. Glacial environments include polished looks, striations and scratches. 1 . Glacier valleys are u-shaped. 2. Coral reefs form in tropical shallow waters. 3.
Striations and stretches . In a delta, coarsest sediments are immediately deposited because the energy rapidly decreases from high to low and high energy is needed to move bigger sediments. As energy slows, bigger sized sediments drop until finally all that’s in the water is clay and silt which are only able to drop in very little energy water. 5. Draw & label meandering river 6. 7. 8. Sediments and a Canyon 2. A transgressing sea level sequence (rising) is limestone on top of shale on top of sandstone. Regressive sea level sequence (lowering) is the opposite (sandstone on top of shale on top of limestone). . 9. 10. 11. Precambrian 2. The Big Bang was the creation of the universe and ended the dark ages by shedding the first light after 1 billion years after the explosion. This occurred 13. 7 billion years ago. 3. 6. Terrestrial (rocky) planets are located near the sun because they need a warmer inner solar system. They have heavier elements but cannot grow big. 7. 10. A supernova is a star’s death. It rapidly expands and then contracts and explodes and it distributes new elements. It is the origin of all known heavy elements 11. 12. 13.
The moon originated when Theta (a planet the size of Mars) collided with Earth ND bits broke off and then regrouped into the moon. 14. The Goldbricks Zone is where liquid water can be formed. This is important because planets in these zones are habitable. 15. Outclassing from volcanoes released water vapor, H2O, HCI, CO, CO and NO. 17. Volcanic water vapor was the source of water for corners. When the temperature of the earths surface cooled below 1000 C, water moved from the Atmosphere to the Ocean. The salt in the ocean came from weathering of materials on land, then transport by rivers to ocean. 18. The Earth formed 4. Billion years ago. Origin of Life . Life is a chemical system that undergoes Darwinian evolution. It metabolites high- quality energy from its environment. Requirements are free energy, organic molecules and liquid water. 2. Humans today share the qualities of free energy, organic molecules and liquid water with the first life forms. 3. 1 1 . LUCAS is the Last Universal Common Ancestor (prokaryote, heat-loving, heterodox) Evidence for this is that all life is made of the same organic compounds, all life uses same 20 amino acids (all left-handed Symmetry), and all life uses the same genetic code (DNA).