Therefore in this study initiative field learning was applied to examine outdoor thermal relieve in hot and humid tropical climate of Malaysia. Thermal conditions of outdoor places were evaluated based leading the height of major climatic parameters whereas the thermal insights of subjects were captured at the same time using a questionnaire survey. The study concerted on the cool outdoor places within the campus of university putty Malaysia while the focus was on the students of university counting local and international individuals as the respondents of investigation.
Meanwhile the psychologically CEQ bivalent enrapture (PET) thermal comfort index was utilized to review the thermal comfort circumstances of chosen areas. Consequences from this research indicated above and beyond the extensive role of the ecological factors thermal amendment and mental parameters strongly influence human comfort intensity in outdoor places. Furthermore, this study represents that there is a major distinction between the responses of the local and international subjects regarding the climatic conditions.
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The ultimate result of the study contributes toward creating comfortable outdoor spaces in warm ND humid contexts to increase the extent of outdoor life in cities. A biological atmosphere in which the organisms interact with all the living, non living, and physical components in a particular area such as air, soil, water, and sunlight is known as the ecological system. A slow but sure increase in the earth’s average surface temperature is known as the global warming.
Global warming is considered to be one of the most important factors behind the deterioration of the ecological system. Global warming occurs because of different causes, but mainly it is associated with human interference, particularly the emission of greenhouse gases excessively (EPA 2006). Global warming is too serious for the world any longer to ignore its danger or split into conflicting factions on it (Blair, 2005). Human activities like deforestation, pollution, and increasing population can also result in global warming.
It is considered to be a type of green house effect. Global warming is affecting the world ecological system by increasing the danger for species destruction, particularly in bio diverse ecosystems, because intense climate situation like hurricanes, draughts and heavy downpours turn out to be more moon. The Impact of global warming on the ecological and social environment is the persistent increase in worldwide temperatures, climate change which includes the active temperature record, increasing sea levels, and decreased snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere.
The practical increase in global average temperature is due to the continuous increase in greenhouse gas concentrations. The physical impact of global warming on the ecological environment or system is the increase in global average air and ocean temperatures, extensive melting of snow and ice, and mounting global average sea level. The earth should always maintain balance between the outward radiation and the inward solar energy.
Any alteration in the factors that influence this procedure of energy distribution earth’s temperature will change itself and will affect many aspects of the environment and the ecological system. There are the different natural and human factors that pressure this weak balance such as change in solar output and earth’s orbit, increasing green house effect, aerosols, and burning of fossils fuels. Human activities like burning of fossil fuels, has led to an increase in the absorption f green house gases in the environment.
Sulfur dioxide emissions, which are precursors to the creation of sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere affecting the ecological system of the world. Global warming plays an important role in weakening displacing, or destroying the ecological system of the world but there are some major solutions and steps which can be adopted or implement in order to solve this problem for better, improved and hygienic ecological system. Many policies and individual choices have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and generate major health advantages.
Avoidance of deforestation, air pollution, and utilization of land in high quantity should be reduced and measures like plantation of trees, buying best economy fuel for newly bought vehicles and others should be adopted for better ecological system growth and this may help to reduce or decrease global warming in future. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The objective of this research is to measure the probable impacts of climate change on the ecological system of the world. Primarily the reality and source for the increase in global average air temperature, is the exceptional warming drift or regular climatic changes.
Either humankind has contributed essentially to it, or the boost is completely or incompletely an object of poor measurements. Scientists are of the opinion that the warming trend is extraordinary and human activity is the main reason behind it (Nozzle, 2004). Developed theories on global warming explain that fossil fuel combustion may ultimately result in increased global warming (Awareness, 1896). Awareness anticipated a relation between atmospheric carbon dioxide and heat. He and Thomas Chamberlain evaluated that human actions could warm the earth by adding carbon dioxide to the environment.
Accumulation of additional carbon dioxide to the environment would interrupt infrared energy or waves that are either lost to space or warm the earth (Plans, 1955). Then the green house theory was developed according to which greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (ICC), methane (CHI), water vapor, and fluorinated gases, allows heat from the Sun into the environment, but do not allow the heat to escape back into space and because of excess green houses gases in the environment heat is trapped inside the earth’s atmosphere (NASA, 2002).
Increase greenhouse gas concentrations in the earth’s atmosphere results in abnormal temperatures which causes sea level to rise and rainfall patterns to change (NASA 2002). According to the anthropogenic global warming theory human beings are highly liable for most of the minor warming trend observed since the Little Ice Age. The GAG theory provides a brief explanation for the 1. 5 degrees F of warming of the atmosphere near the earth’s surface recorded since 1850.
However global warming is said to be the most possible natural happening because there is no evidence of synthetic global warming, and recommended that alarmist is motivating politicians to make poor environmental policies (Patrick Moore, N. D). Other theories developed on global warming are; Bio-thermostat theory is that increase in temperatures and levels of carbon dioxide (ICC) in the environment activates natural and compound responses that have a cooling outcome.
Another one is the planetary motion theory according to which normal gravitational and captivating oscillations of the solar system induced by the planet’s movement through space results in climate change (Bass, 2010). American researchers released ice-thickness statistics, collected by nuclear submarines and the data dated that the ice intensity in all regions of the Arctic Ocean had declined by approximately 40 percent over the earlier forty years. EPIC predicted that Antarctica would not add considerably to sea level rise this century (EPIC, 2001).
In April 2005 a NASA Goddard Institute oceanic study reported that the earth was holding on to further solar energy than it was emitting into space (Columbia 2005). In January 2007 global standard land and sea temperatures were the top most recorded for that month. In 2007, EPIC Fourth Report explained larger belief and inferior doubts than the previous report. In 1 995 only some scientists assumed that the effects of global warming were already obvious, but by 2005 few scientists doubted it. The study of recent global environment models has two major limitations.
Firstly, the study depends on observed facts which include surface station readings, weather balloons, and satellites, which are of doubtful value and correctness due to the short extent Of the evidence and the need for adjustments to accurate synthetic discontinuities such as instrument and satellite changes. These models project potential climate trends not only by evaluating observed data, but by including exaggerated factors and extra complex adjustments that make the projections very erratic.
Secondly, environment models generalize many inadequately understood climate processes, and results from the models can be contradictory or conflicting. Other than this the earth surface temperature reports are unfair by the urban heat island effect and Failure to report for local warming in cities led to some claims of impressive warming in the 1 9805 and 1 sass and, although adjustments are completed today and the predictions of warming extensively reduced, some researchers believe the adjustments to be inadequate and insufficient (lames, 2004).
These were some of the developed theories, findings and study limitations of global warming. LITERATURE REVIEW This part of the research briefly reviews the literature which is associated to assessing the economic, social, cultural, political and most importantly environmental causes, effects and impact of global warming. This study also identifies the benefits and limitations of the different theories developed and suggested by different scientists or institutions. Logical debates on global warming still exist after more than thirty years;
EPIC in fourth evaluation Report states that: “Observational evidence from all continents and most oceans shows that many natural systems are being affected by regional climate changes, particularly temperature increases… [and that the] magnitudes of impact can now be estimated more systematically for a range of possible increases in global average temperature” (EPIC, 2007). In answer to such affirmations, there have been a significant amount of studies examining the probable impacts of climate change on global economies (Rinsing, 2002).
THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT 1 Global warming and world ecological system – Causes According to the scientific research by the national science academics of all major developed nations earth’s indicated surface temperature has amplified by about 0. 8 co (1. 4 OF), with about two-thirds of the increase occurring since 1980. The greenhouse effect is the method by which absorption and emission of infrared gas release in the atmosphere humid a planet’s inferior atmosphere and surface effecting the world’s ecological system.
The gases responsible for increasing the most warming and heat in atmosphere is carbon dioxide (ICC), methane, nitrous oxide, and the other gases used for forestation and industrial processes, and the loss of forests. Global warming is mainly caused by these factors and is effecting the human ecological environment by damaging the ozone layer. THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT 2 Global and the world ecological system – Effects or impacts on the environment.
The physical impact of global warming on the ecological environment or system is the increase in global average air and ocean temperatures, extensive melting of snow and ice, and increasing global average sea level. Absorption of greenhouse gases in the environment occurred or took place because of the human activities like burning of fossil eels, Sulfur dioxide emissions, which are precursors to the creation of sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere affecting the ecological system of the world.
Another impact of global warming on the ecological system and the human beings is radioactive forcing is that due to the damage of the ozone layer (which protects the earth from the harmful rays of the sun), the rays of the sun is directly affecting the earth resulting in increased humidity and temperature and causing diseases like skin cancer, various eye problems, malaria and others. Due to continuous heat temperatures more water will sippers creating stronger hurricanes, shortage of water for plants to grow which will eventually affect agriculture; this may result in a shortage of food which will have disturbing effects on human.
THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT 3 Global warming and the world ecological system – Natural and Human factors responsible for global warming, what measures or steps can be suggested or taken in order to reduce global warming. Any change in the factors which controls the process of energy division earth’s temperature will change itself and will affect many aspects of the environment and the ecological system is hat the earth should always retain equilibrium between the outgoing radiation and the incoming solar energy. Following are the different natural and human factors that pressure this weak balance.
Natural Factors which led to global warming: * Because of the destruction of the ozone layer the amount of energy radiating from the earth’s sun is not stable or constant resulting as a change in solar output. * Slow variations in the Earth’s orbit around the sun change where and when energy is received on earth. This affects the amount of energy that is reflected and immersed. * The Greenhouse Effect is a method by which thermal radiation from an environmental surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated in all directions.
The greenhouse gas (water vapor, carbon dioxides, methane and nitrous oxide) helps to humid the surface and the troposphere which increases or contributes to global warming. * Aerosols are the fine particles and droplets which are small enough to stay suspended in the environment for extensive time period. They reveal and absorb received solar radiation. Changing the type and quantity of aerosols affects the amount of solar energy reflected or absorbed in the environment.
Human Factors which led to global warming: Scientific studies have shown that a range of human actions release greenhouse gases such as burning of fossil fuels for generating electrical energy, heating and transportation. By increasing their concentrations and by adding new greenhouse gases like CIFS in the environment, humankind is competent of raising the standard global temperature. * Change in land utilization affects the universal carbon cycle, reduces the world’s forests and woodlands, expands the cropped land area, and causes deforestation.
Conversion of land from natural to agricultural use also upsets the balance and results in global warming. Humans are adding bulky quantities of fine particles (aerosols) to the environment, both from agriculture and industrial activities and affect the radiation equilibrium in the atmosphere known as Atmospheric Aerosols. Burning of the natural resources from past geologic periods to power the engines, and re-injecting fossil carbon heritage into the environment at much accelerated rate for energy.
Carbon dioxide is discarded into the atmosphere in a larger amount so the carbon dioxide increase is a main controlling factor of the global warming. These Factors are responsible for the global warming s whole. The solutions of this problem are discussed below in detail. * While buying a new vehicle, look for the one with the best fuel economy in its class. * Choose clean power is that more than half the electricity comes from polluting coal-fired power plants. These power plants are the only major source of heat-trapping gas. Look for Energy Star is that search for the Energy Star label on new appliances (refrigerators, freezers, furnaces, air conditioners, and water heaters use the most energy) for avoiding global warming from heat trapping gases. * Unplug a freezer is that by unplugging the spare refrigerator or freezer rarely used this can reduce the characteristic fame lily’s carbon dioxide emissions by nearly 1 0 percent. * Stop deforestation is that start planting trees in order to decrease carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. Avoid air pollution, arbitration in large quantity for better ecological system growth.
Adaptation and implementation of the above suggested solutions may result as a decrease or reduction of global warming in future. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS According to all the theories and discussions developed it is crystal clear that global warming is increasing rapidly and damaging the environment completely a research shows that the Earth’s land has warmed by 1. C over the past 250 years and humans are the main cause behind this, according to a systematic study put up to address climate change skeptics’ concerns about whether human induced global warming is taking place.
Proof Richard Mueller, a physicist and climate change skeptic who founded the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature project, said he was amazed by the result. “We were not expecting this, but as scientists, it is our duty to let the evidence change our minds. ” He added that e now considers himself a “converted skeptic” and his views are completely changed in a short period of time. Furthermore, all of these enhanced outcomes of global warming are from the human emission of greenhouse gases (Mueller, Newark times).
The most recent data analyzed the warming force of solar motion (a popular hypothesis among environment skeptics), but it was found that the input of the sun has been constant with zero more than the past 250 years. Volcanic eruptions were found to have caused short dips in the temperature rise in the period 1750-??1850. According to Mueller most of he damage caused to the environment is just because of the increase in atmospheric carbon die oxide whereas this doesn’t confirm that global warming is caused by human greenhouse gases.
The analysis of developed theories, researches and findings further suggested that there would be 1. 5 degrees of warming over land in the next 50 years, but if China continues its swift economic expansion and its enormous use of coal then that same warming could take place in less than 20 years. CONCLUSION Ecological control is an idea in environmental policy associated with defining the basics squired to accomplish sustainability. All human activities such as political, social and economical should be understood and managed as subsets of the environment and ecosystems.
Everyone can get advantage from the environment, weather and biodiversity, and then the whole planet suffers the remarkable penalty or consequences of global warming, condensed ozone layer and the loss of species. This environmental aspect requires a collective management approach. Environmental issues like global warming calls for the acceptance and implementation of consistent multilateral administration y an immense variety of stakeholders. It is expected or projected that if the current input trend of Green House Gases remained constant, then earth’s mean global temperature will increase.