Vulnerable populations, especially in rural areas, are heavily dependent on healthy ecosystems for their livelihoods and survival. We, Cordial as a development agency, were touching on “Community Managed Disaster Risk Reduction” for last few years. There were agencies who were keeping their focus on Ecosystem Restoration and Management, and Climate Change. Need not to mention now, that issues like Climate Change, Disaster and echo system are enter-related. Although there was information shared but very limited “Knowledge Management” and “Convergence” happening among these agencies.
The diagram below illustrates the focus of the program and the interrelationship between the different components of the “Triangle of Resilience”. Bruno Hexameter, Netherlands Red Cross March 2011 Similarly, there are also lessons learnt at government level, which have been used as policy making in the field of disaster management, climate change and environment. Within the disaster management, there is a recognized paradigm shift in approach room Relief, Restoration and Rehabilitation to Planning, Prevention and Preparedness is required.
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There is a strong emphasis on mainstreaming DRY between various sectors. Climate policies recognize the trend of increasing disasters and ecosystem degradation, and thereby include actions on restoring ecosystems as a meaner to climate change adaptation. Introduction Now, Cordial and Wetlands International has come together to work on Disaster Risk Reduction, Climate Change and Echo System management. There will be mutual learning, strengthening of each others work, experimenting and demonstrating convergence of all these three streams in field.
On December 21-23, 2010, the All India Disaster Mitigation Institute (IDEM) and Wetlands International, in partnership with the Gujarat Council of Science City and International Union for Conservation of Nature, convened a three-day national training on “Ecosystems, Community based Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction in India” at the Science City. UNDO South-South from Bangkok also joined the event. A total of 30 participants representing national Nags, government agencies, We wish luck to IDEM to take this initiative forward with the help of this publication.
Monish Sushi Cordial Advisor, India Types to Participants To teach the participants about the tools available for community participation; To assist participants in vulnerability and capacity assessment with community participation; To help participants understand on how to make a community based action plan to implement ecosystem and climate change adaptation with integration of disaster risk reduction; 5. If possible, estimate demand for further trainings with a focus on livelihoods of wetland communities and climate adaptation. Academic institutions and schools, and environmental organizations attended the training, as well as numerous university students. Field experts were invited and provided their inputs and guidance. The training brought together diverse policy- makers, activists, and practitioners in an open forum to discuss the salient issues related to wetlands, ecosystems, and disaster risk reduction in India. This has never before been done on such a large scale, with so many committed experts and a large number of participants. The stated objectives of the training were: 1.
To raise awareness of the participants on the basic concepts of community based climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction for ecosystems as well as for immunities; 2 3 Background Wetlands play an important role as a buffer between fresh and saltwater systems, and some local environmental experts believe they must be protected if Gujarat wants to halt increasing salinity ingress, which is adversely affecting agriculture. Environmentally, wetlands are a tremendous source of life. Much of Guajarati world- renowned bio-diversity and natural processes depend upon these diverse wetland ecosystems.
The rich variety of waterfowl in the state, including many migratory and endangered species, is attributed to the diversity of the area’s wetland habitats. Wetlands are part of an interconnected global network of water-dependent, cross- boundary resources, and their components cannot be managed in isolation. Wetlands are essential for risk reduction in ways that are not always obvious. Globally, 1 5 billion people depend on wetlands as a source to drinking water, t and livelihood, and in addition to these resources, wetlands play an important role in flood mitigation and the prevention of land erosion.
Furthermore, they purify waste water and thereby prevent the spread of infectious disease and environmental toxins. In this sense, wetlands reduce the impact of hazards and reduce the effects of any potential disasters, ranging from floods to infectious disease outbreaks. Thousands of citizens depend on wetlands for income from agriculture, fishing, grass cropping, medicinal botanical, fuel, and fodder for livestock. These unique ecosystems, encompassing the areas where land transitions into water, provide habitat to a rich variety of flora and fauna, and they are therefore important sites for national and international echo-tourism. 5 Global wetland area was recently estimated at about 7. 5 to 7. 8 million sq. Km. , but this figure excludes many wetland types such as salt marshes, coastal flats, sea grass, dadoes and reservoirs. India harbors about 5% of the world’s wetlands, and 1/3 of Indian’s wetland area is in Gujarat. Unfortunately, many wetlands in Gujarat are becoming drier and are shrinking or disappearing all together. This not only threatens the state’s bio-diversity, but it also endangers human health and places people at greater risk for future disasters.
However, Gujarat has the capability and resources to stop this destruction and perhaps even regain lost wetland areas in the coming years. Citizens and authorities must work together for greener and healthier wetlands in Gujarat. The restoration of wetlands to a “pristine” state should not be the ultimate goal. In India and elsewhere, humans have been significantly altering their environment for hundreds or thousands of years. The environment is a product of both human and natural forces, and the focus should be on establishing systems that enhance both environmental and human wellbeing.
In fact, there are numerous examples of human actions increasing bio-diversity in certain areas by creating more diverse habitat or by providing critical resources such as permanent watering holes that allow more animals to survive the dry season. With thoughtful interventions, humans can increase the productivity of many ecosystems while maintaining the important goals of bio-diversity, human health, environmental stability, and risk reduction. This three-day training was a launching point for this initiative. 6 7 environment.
He also pointed out that traffic and Proceedings transport may negatively affect wetlands and methods for sustainable transportation that protect wetlands must be developed. Dry. Brat Jetted, of Wetlands International, opened the training by welcoming the guests, stating the objectives, giving an overview and outlining the need for a moon platform for wetlands development. Dry. Jetted emphasized that wetlands encompass a variety of ecosystems, ranging from coastal, desert, tropical, and mountain, and each has unique biodiversity and provides different services to society. Mr..
M. M. Narwhal, Deputy Commissioner of Mohammedan Traffic Police inaugurated the training. He emphasized an active involvement of each and every citizen to save our The keynote address was then delivered by Dry. N. M. Shari, from Mangroves for the Future Programmer, and the India Coordinator of the International Union for Conservation of Nature. He prefaced his speech by saying that we need to find nature-based solutions to provide an opportunity for effective, efficient and equitable mitigation of risks. Nature can manage natural risks far better than man in most circumstances.
Wetlands decrease the impact of floods and droughts far more effectively than manmade levies, embankments, or reservoirs. In fact, many “natural” disasters are a consequence of human actions. For example, floods often occur where rivers have been dammed, where flood plains have been destroyed, or 8 9 10 11 where nature’s disaster mitigation capacity has been otherwise disrupted. Immunity and Cobs working together to make the coast of Gujarat greener and safer. Mr.. Chandeliers Panda, IFS, Director of Gujarat Ecology Commission focused on community based mangrove plantation initiatives taken up by the Gujarat Ecology Commission.
He mentioned that mangroves swamps form one of the most important ecosystems of coastal and marine areas. They safeguard the ecological security of the coastal regions, and they provide livelihood opportunities to the fisherman and pastoral families living in those areas. The Gujarat Ecology Commission has restored more than 8000 ha of mangrove area along the coast of Gujarat with active involvement to coast I communities under various tending sources. A total to 1 strong community-based organizations have been formed and expanded with capacity building exercises, and there are plans to restore mangroves habitats in additional areas.
Mr.. Panda emphasized the essential role of Mr.. Ambit Parkas And, Head of UNDO Arioso, stated that inclusion of poor communities in the environmental development process is essential. “Ecology includes all lives and so economy must also include all lives. Inclusive ecology and exclusive economy cannot go hand in hand”. Mrs.. Candida Delicate Williston, DRY advisor of UNDO Shootout Cooperation stated during her session that development that doesn’t consider environmental impacts in the planning process can create or increase disaster and climate risk, which negates positive effects of development. Human Development and Human Ecology cannot be separated in anyway in the Disaster Risk Reduction process”. 12 13 Dry. Rites Kumar, Conservation Programmer Officer of Wetlands International, highlighted the importance and role of infrastructure in ecology development. “Adaptation is largely about changing the way we interact with, manage, and think bout different aspects of the environment and the services they provide. Much of our interaction with the environment is through infrastructure and the institutions that manage it.
As such, infrastructure presents us with opportunities to adapt. ” Mr.. Mir Bath of All India Disaster Mitigation Institute focused on “Wetlands and Risks: An Approach for India” and said “Wetlands are our key resources for faster and more inclusive disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. This, let me suggest, should be our objective and also our challenge for at least the next five years. While the state of our environment is receiving more attention now than it did a decade ago, at both policy and planning levels, it is not enough. He argued for building “green mitigation” measures that reduce natural hazards of floods and droughts. Four main session topics were addressed in presentations and panels: Session 1 Ecosystems, Biodiversity and Climate Change: Green Gujarat Models Community based Mangrove Plantations in Gujarat Biodiversity and Coastal Climate Change Adaptation 2 Coastal Community Development: DRY Initiatives Basic Needs and Wetland Community Development Microeconomics, DRY and Climate Change Adaptation Impact of Climate Change on
Coastal Communities of Arioso and Thumbnail Key Issues Role of Community Advisory role of civil society Capacity for community participation Local initiatives Sustainable action Effective strategies Small is beautiful Limits of adaptation Impact on livelihoods Role to microeconomics 14 15 Monopolizing and informing community Monopolizing Coos Inclusion of vulnerable and marginalia communities Climate and Disaster Risk Overlap International Sphere standards 4. Infrastructure and Climate Avoid degradation Change- DRY Integrate ecosystems 5.
Community Based Climate Structural inequities Change Adaptation for Protecting and promoting Ecosystem and DRY community rights Inclusion in CA and Inclusion of coastal Mitigation in coastal communities communities Integrating CA in Poverty Alleviation 3. DRY Concept and Community Managed Disaster Risk Reduction Community Managed Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Role of International Sphere Standards Discussion The first session discussed the need to successfully and creatively integrate disaster risk reduction and ecosystem management into our thinking.
Furthermore, the experiences of the people of India should be thoughtfully incorporated into the assister risk reduction strategy. Their voices and familiarity with their local environment can no longer be ignored. The second session focused on coastal areas and demonstrated that within the “coastal wetland” designation, islands, deltas, and mangroves all have very different characteristics. It is this diversity that unites wetlands, and in order to address risk reduction in the future, we must take this variation into consideration.
The third session noted that disaster risk reduction strategies were too often dominated by economics and engineering, with ecosystems generally being 16 17 neglected. This is to the detriment of both the environment and to those who are at risk for disasters. Engineering solutions typically ignore the complexity of the wetlands they replace. For example, flood plains and marshes don’t Just mitigate flooding; they filter out toxins and diseases, provide habitat for plants and animals, supply water during times of drought, and they attenuate climate change. Re taken into consideration (water filtration, food, flood protection, etc) , many development projects actually decrease the economic output to a society A individual developer may profit from building a factory on a wetland, but society and he local communities suffer. During the session, it was agreed that there is a need to develop and implement tools and methodologies which communities can use to manage wetlands sustainable, and it is also necessary to make the voices of the wetland communities heard. The fourth session examined wetland degradation, focusing on the negative impact of roads, railways and industrial infrastructure.
The overlap between wetlands and disaster risk was discussed at length. The notable interventions of National Institute of Disaster Management, as well as Admits efforts in Briar after the 2007 and 2008 loads, were also highlighted. The fifth session was an animated debate on the ways in which growth-oriented development is leading to wetland degradation. Short-term economic growth does not take into account the true cost of development. Nobody pays the price for environmental destruction initially, and if the loss of essential ecosystem services 18 19 included : 1. Surrounding wetlands.
ADMIT will work with Recommendations 4. Science City and MAC to develop such a note. Direct engagement with the private sector to shift their views from economic benefits at the cost of ecology to economic benefits from restoring ecology. A Roundtable must be held with Cal or FOCI in Delhi by wetlands, JINN and IDEM. 5. Work with government ministers to ensure economic penalties are created and enforced for private sector activities that harm wetlands. Conversely, support should be provided to communities, institutions, or businesses that work to manage wetlands in a sustainable and responsible manner. . Pilot wetland projects in MAC limit with MAC, CSS, II-JAN and others to make Mohammedan the first city to have its own “Urban Wetlands” pilot with a focus on education, health, water, and sanitation. 7. Develop a pilot for MAC schools on wetlands in and around MAC so that school children learn about their environment in a more concrete and direct way. Recommendations for follow-up, action plan and others Developing Joint approach paper on issues of Wetlands and Risk by CUMIN, Science City, IDEM, UNDO and Wetlands International tort the 12th Plan tort the Planning Commission was recommended.
IDEM will develop a small process note. 2. Conducting similar training programmers in Briar to highlight the importance of floods and wetlands, Madman and Nicolai Islands to highlight island wetlands, Thumbnail to highlight coastal wetlands and Lee to highlight issues of high altitude wetlands. IDEM and II-JAN will develop a small plan. 3. Introduce a training module on wetlands and risk for schools where the Safer School Campaign is active and also encompass new schools 20 21 Wetlands, Risks, and Health issues must be examined from a public health and community health perspective.
Wetlands play an important role in infectious disease regulation, nutrition, and clean water availability, and the impact on human health and well-being should be studied. A paper must be developed, and the public health perspective must be brought into future conservation projects. After the training, spot evaluation was conducted. The results are as follows 52% of the participants felt that they learned more than expected. 100% found the subject balance satisfactory.
The following sessions were considered definitely worth repeating in the future: Inauguration and Keynote address, Community based Mangrove Plantations is Gujarat (2nd presentation); Biodiversity and Coastal Climate Change Adaptation (3rd Presentation); Basic Needs and Wetlands Community Development (4th presentation); Micro insurance, DRY and Climate Change Adaptation (5th presentation); Community Managed DRY and Climate Change Adaptation (6th presentation), Role of Sphere Standards (7th presentation),
Infrastructure and DRY (8th presentation); Integrating CA in poverty alleviation (1 lath presentation) and Field visit to Inhalators Birds Sanctuary. Impact of Training The event was seen relevant for action by 80% of the participations and as relevant to advocacy by 32% of the participants. List of advocacy and action items are developed. 100% of the workshop attendees found the workshop well-organized (but two participants wanted advance copies of the schedule). The information provided, conference material, and invited experts were completely satisfactory (100%). 20%