Asthma is a chronic disease that affects the air passages of the lungs. It’s characterized by recurrent attacks of wheezing and loss of breath. These episodes or attacks can happen many times a day, a week or when exposed to certain substances or in specific physical activity. The World Health Organization estimates that around the world about 300 million people suffer asthma, the majority children. In fact it is consider the most common chronic disease among children. Asthma is not just a public lath problem for high income countries: it occurs in all countries regardless Of level Of development.
Over Of asthma deaths occurs in low and lower middle income countries. During an asthma attack, the lining of the bronchial tubes swell, causing the airways to narrow and reducing the flow of air into and out of the lungs. Recurrent asthma symptoms frequently cause sleeplessness, daytime fatigue, reduced activity levels and school and work absenteeism. Causes The exact cause of asthma is not completely understood. The strongest risk factors for developing asthma are a combination of genetic predisposition tit environmental exposure to inhaled substances and particles that may provoke allergic reactions or irritate the airways.
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Triggers often bring on asthma attacks. A trigger is anything or condition that causes inflammation in the airways, which then leads to asthma symptoms. Your personal triggers can be very different from those of another person with asthma: * indoor allergens (for example house dust mites in bedding, carpets and stuffed furniture, pollution and pet dander) * outdoor allergens (such as pollens and moulds) * tobacco smoke * chemical irritants air pollution Other triggers can include cold air, extreme emotional arousal such as anger or fear, and physical exercise.
In some people, asthma can even be triggered by certain medications, such as aspirin and other non-steroid anti- inflammatory drugs, and beta-blockers (which are used to treat high blood pressure, heart conditions and migraine). Arbitration has also been associated with an increase in asthma, however the exact nature of this relationship is unclear. AIR POLLUTION Indoor Pollution According to the World Health Organization indoor air pollution is the 8th sot important risk factor and responsible for 2. % of the global burden of disease in general. Globally, indoor air pollution from solid fuel use is responsible for 1. 6 million deaths due to pneumonia, chronic respiratory disease and lung cancer. In high-mortality developing countries, indoor smoke is responsible for an estimated 3. 7% of the overall disease burden, making it the most lethal killer after malnutrition, unsafe sex and lack of safe water and sanitation. Indoor air pollution has been associated with a wide range of health problems.
There is consistent evidence that exposure to indoor air pollution increases the risk of pneumonia among children under five years, and chronic respiratory disease and lung cancer (in relation to coal use) among adults over 30 years old. The evidence for a link with lung cancer from exposure to biomass smoke, and for a link with asthma, cataracts and tuberculosis was considered moderate. While the precise mechanism of how exposure causes disease is still unclear, it is known that small particles and several of the other pollutants contained in indoor smoke cause inflammation of the airways and nuns and impair the immune response.
Outdoor Pollution * Air pollution is a major environmental risk to health and is estimated to cause 2 million premature deaths worldwide per year. * Exposure to air pollutants is beyond control of individuals and requires action at the national, regional and even international levels. * By reducing air pollution levels, we can help countries reduce diseases from respiratory infections, heart disease, and lung cancer. Chronic exposure to particles contributes to the risk of developing cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, as well as of lung anger.
In developing countries, exposure to pollutants from indoor combustion of solid fuels on open fires or traditional stoves increases the risk of acute lower respiratory infections and associated mortality among young children; indoor air pollution from solid fuel use is also a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer among adults. Excessive ozone in the air can have a marked effect on human health. It can cause breathing problems, trigger asthma, reduce lung function and cause lung diseases.
Epidemiological studies have shown that symptoms of bronchitis in asthmatic children increase in association with long-term exposure to NON. Reduced lung function growth is also linked to NON at concentrations. SIS can affect the respiratory system and the functions Of the lungs, and causes irritation of the eyes. Inflammation of the respiratory tract causes coughing, mucus secretion, aggravation of asthma and chronic bronchitis and makes people more prone to infections of the respiratory tract.