Air Pollution Index (API) is the conversion of ambient resalable suspended particulates (RSVP), sulfur dioxide (ASS), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (03) and nitrogen dioxide (NON) concentration measured at the air quality monitoring network to a scale of O to 500. The lower the level, the better quality of air we can breathe. Fifth index is above 100, there will be an adverse acute health effect to human. The number of days which had a record of API 1 00 or above keeps increasing these years, which brings many problems to us.
According to the International Monetary Fund, the poor air quality in Hong Kong and around the Pearl River Delta is not only a regional problem, but a global concern that could undermine Hong Kong : s competitiveness. This has been reflected in the difficulties Of attracting and retaining high-skilled workers and reluctance of giving birth to children by the Hong Kong citizens. Source: Department of Community Medicine, School of Public Health, University of Hong Kong The graph above shows the air quality in Hong Kong is far worse than the Air
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Quality Guidelines issued by the WHO and the other major cities in the world. Therefore, we are going to focus on how to enhance the air quality in Hong Kong and make Hong Kong a healthy city for everybody to enjoy their lives. From the data issued in the Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory Report by the Environmental Protection Department, every Hong Kong citizen produces 5. 5 tons of CO in 2005. Though it is less than the 6. 5 tons per capita of the Global Warming Potential Weighted Emission, we still an do something to contribute to our environment.
We have to identify what the major sources of pollution are, so that we can further improve the air quality in Hong Kong. From what we can see on the left, the two major sources of air pollution are the emission from power plants and vehicles. They contribute 75 % of nitrogen oxides and resalable suspended particulates. Road transportation alone also contributes 89% of the CO and 16% of the non-methane volatile organic compounds emission. With the API benefiting, motor vehicles really produce great amount of air pollutants that worsen our air quality.
ABOVE: Red bus goes Green Campaign – The world’s first hybrid diesel electric double- Decker bus goes into service in London Buses emit more exhausted gases than other vehicles because it requires a higher fuel consumption to support the large horsepower output and their use of diesel oil has make things even worse. When compared with England, the buses in Hong Kong are much more environmental unfriendly In England, over 68% of the buses are implied with the Euro Ill standard while the buses in Hong Kong only have around 25%.
From the Annual Transportation Digest published by the Transportation Department, there were a total of 622,662 registered cars in Hong Kong at the end of 2005, among which, around 10% were public buses. Kowloon Motor Bus is the major operator in the industry which runs more than 400 routes and 4,000 buses. Therefore, we decided to analyze the Kowloon Motor Bus company, and propose methods to enhance their operations in order to comply with the design for environment.