Why is air pollution such a serious issue? Air pollution is a serious issue now because many respiratory related deaths are caused by air pollution. Also air pollution disrupts the CEO-system and the effects will be too catastrophic for the future generations to overcome. The world leaders seem to pay very little attention to pollution because the effects are not drastically noticed and the industrialized nations are the leading cause of air pollution. Industrialization contributes greatly to air pollution. China and the United States both accounted for 41. 7% of the world’s total carbon emissions.
Linden, China is the world’s most polluted city. Nearly people are affected everyday from air pollution. The type of pollutant is coal and the source is from industrial emissions. (Walsh 2). Chart showing the sources Of air pollution Indoor Air Pollution You cannot escape air pollution, not even in your own home. “In 1985 the Environmental Protection Agency (ERA) reported that toxic chemicals found in the air of almost every American home are three times more likely to cause some type of cancer than outdoor air pollutants. “(Miller 488). The health problems in these building are called “sick building syndrome”.
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An estimated one-fifth to one-third of all IIS building are now considered “sick”. (Miller 489). The EPA has found that the air in some office buildings is 100 times more polluted than the air outside. Poor ventilation causes about half of the indoor air pollution problems, the rest come from specific sources such as copying machines, electrical and telephone cables, mold and microbe harboring air condition systems and ducts, cleaning fluids, cigarette smoke, carpet, latex caulk and paint, vinyl molding, building materials and furniture that emit air pollutants such as formaldehyde.
A major indoor air pollutant is radon-222, a colorless, odorless, tasteless, naturally occurring radioactive gas produced by the radioactive decay of uranium-238. “According to studies by the EPA and the National Research Council, exposure to radon is second only to smoking as a cause of lung cancer”. (Miller 489) Causes of Air Pollution Carbon Dioxide (CO): the major pollutant in the atmosphere. Major sources of carbon dioxide are fossil fuels burning and deforestation. “The concentration of carbon dioxide in the air around 1860 before the effects of globalization were felt, it is assumed to have been about 290 parts per lion(pump).
In the hundred years and more since then, the concentration has increased by about 30 to 35 pump that IS an increase of 10 percent’. (Brewer 67). Industrial countries account for 65% of Carbon dioxide emissions. Less developed countries with 80% of the world’s people are responsible for 35% of CO emissions but may also contribute to 50% by 2020. Carbon dioxide emissions are increasing by 4% every year”. (Miller 450) . Carbon dioxide is a good transmitter of sunlight, but particularly restricts infrared radiation going back from earth to space.
This produces the green souse effect; this prevents the drastic cooling of the earth during night. Increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reinforces this effect and is expected to result in warming the earth’s surface. Currently carbon dioxide is responsible for 57% of the global warming trend. Chlorofluorocarbons (CIFS): CIFS are lowering the average concentration of ozone in the stratosphere. “Since 1978 the use of Cuff’s in aerosol cans has been banned in the United States, Canada and most Scandinavian countries.
Aerosols are still used around the world and accounts for 25% of global Cuff’s use”. (Miller 448). Spray cans discarded or leaking refrigerator and air conditioning equipment and the burning plastic foam products release the Cuff’s into the atmosphere. Depending on the type, Cuff’s stay in the atmosphere from 22 to 1 11 years. ” Chlorofluorocarbons move up to the stratosphere gradually over several decades. Under high energy ultra violet (CIVIC) radiation break them down and release chlorine atoms, which speed up the breakdown of ozone (03) into oxygen (02).
Chlorofluorocarbons, also known as Freon’s, are green house gas that contributes to global warming. Photochemical air pollution is commonly referred to as “smog”. Smog is the contraction of the words smoke and fog, smog has been caused by water condensing on smoke particles, usually from burning coal. With the introduction of petroleum to replace coal economies in countries, photochemical smog has become predominant in many cities, which are located in sunny warm and dry climates with many motor vehicles.
The worst episodes of photochemical smog tend to occur in summer. Nitrogen Oxides (Knox) Nitrogen oxides form when fuels are burned at high temperatures. Your car and power plants that burn coal, oil, and natural gas are the major producers. These pollutants can cause lung irritation and inhibit the body’s ability to fight off diseases such as influenza and pneumonia. They also help to form ozone and particulate matter. Nitrogen dioxide is decomposed by sunlight into nitrogen monoxide and atomic oxygen, which in-turn combines immediately with oxygen to form ozone (03).
The more sunlight available, the faster the reaction goes. Therefore, during summer in areas with high traffic, concentrations will increase. Gases that cause air pollution Effects on Human Health “A study to be released by Torso’s public health department says that air elution kills roughly 1 ,DO people a year in Canada’s largest city and puts another 5,000 in hospital. Many of the deaths and illnesses result from pollution levels far below legislated targets, the study says, especially in the case of nitrogen dioxide(NON), much of it from car exhaust.
Nitrogen dioxide is blamed for nearly 40% of the deaths and many breathing-related hospital stays”. (Saunders). Congested heart failure admissions 1 ,234 411 Particulate matter* Air Pollution Statistics in Toronto Respiratory Deaths Cardiac hospital in elderly I Nitrogen Dioxide 511 2,207 I Sulfur dioxide -l Ozone I I Total I The Globe and Mail 274 226 119 59 1 ,356 555 172 199 2,160 I I Carbon monoxide 439 | I 812 2,155 5,448 I According to the study the second -deadliest pollutant is carbon monoxide, another product of motor exhaust.
It is blamed for 30 per I cent of the deaths “even though carbon monoxide levels are well below Notation’s current air-quality criterion”. ( Saunders) The health of our lungs and entire respiratory system is affected by the quality of the air we breathe. In addition to oxygen, this air contains other substances such as pollutants, which can be harmful. Exposure to chemicals y inhalation can negatively affect our lungs and other organs in the body. The respiratory system is particularly sensitive to air pollutants because much of it is made up of exposed membrane.
Lungs are anatomically structured to bring large quantities of air (on average, 400 million liters in a lifetime) into intimate contact with the blood system, to facilitate the delivery of oxygen. Eng tissue cells can be injured directly by air pollutants such as ozone, metals and free radicals. Ozone can damage the alveoli the individual air sacs in the lung where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged. More specifically, airway tissues which are rich in vaccinations enzymes can transform organic pollutants into reactive metabolites and cause secondary lung injury.
Lung tissue has an abundant blood supply that can carry toxic substances and their metabolites to distant organs. In response to toxic insult, lung cells also release a variety of potent chemical mediators that may critically affect the function of other organs such as those of the cardiovascular system. This response may also cause lung inflammation and impair lung function. Air Pollution Causes Chronic Obstructive pulmonary Disease (COP) – is also known as chronic obstructive lung disease and encompasses two major disorders: emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
Emphysema is a chronic disorder in which the walls and elasticity of the alveoli are damaged. Chronic bronchitis is characterized by inflammation of the cells lining the inside of bronchi, which increases the risk of infection and obstructs airflow in and out of the lung. Smoking is responsible for approximately 80% of COP cases while other forms of air pollution may also influence the development of these diseases. Symptoms include cough, production of mucous and shortness of breath. It is important to note that no cure exists for people suffering from COP although healthy lifestyle and appropriate medication can help.
Ways to Stop Air Pollution Pollution is the introduction of a contaminant into the environment. It is created mostly by human actions, but can also be a result of natural disasters. Pollution has a detrimental effect on any living organism in an environment, making it virtually impossible to sustain life. Human beings are the main cause of air pollution and we can take actions to stop pollution. Carpool: Automobiles are the leading cause of air pollution, it is very important that we limit the amount of vehicles on the road.
Carpool offers a good solution to limit car emissions by sharing rides with friends and coworkers. A carpool journey – Saving energy: resources are being exploited to meet the energy demands Of the population. People waste energy so Oil, coal and other resources which pollute the environment are used. We have to turn off lights, fans, air conditioners, televisions and other electrical appliances when we are not using them. Also we have to stop depending on oil and coal for energy, we have to think “green” and use solar, wind, and hydro sources of energy.