Understanding the Basic Types of Organizations this assignment, you will submit a three- to five-page paper that summarizes the main points in Chapter 1, organized by Mintzberg’s typology of firms and using cited (APA standards) passages from the assigned readings and cited selections from the Unit 1 courseroom. People don’t like the same things; they have different point of views, thoughts, and perform in different ways. A combination of a person’s background, nationality and how they’ve been raised are factors that can be of help or damaging to the performance of an organization when putting together a group of people.
It is a combination of ideas that can be something good for a company when is use the right way, with respect for each other’s way of thinking and points of views. Organizational behavior (OB) doesn’t have an exact career path; it offers knowledge and skills that are vitally important to anyone who works in organizations. OB includes an extensive range of topics, such as human behavior, change, leadership and teams inside organizations. It is the study of what people think, feel and do and the application of knowledge about how individuals, groups act in and around organizations (Glinow, 2009).
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This is accomplished by understanding and interpreting people and organization relationships in terms of the entire person, group, and organization, to include their interaction with external environment. The reason behind this study is to build a better working relationship by achieving individual, organizational, and social objectives within an organization. Organizations are groups of people who work interdependently toward some purpose (McShane & Von Glinow, 2009).
The understanding OB is a skill and tool that can have considerable influence on ones career, also in the success and effectiveness of an organization. As Mintzberg states in his article that organization are not alike and therefore the organizational design must be personalized, the structure should be ” like all phenomena from atoms to stars- the characteristics of organizations fall into natural clusters, or configurations” in order to ensure a natural harmony and success of the organization (Mintzberg, 1981).
The effectiveness of an organization is measured on its communicative ability, ethics and goals achieved in its productions. Organizational effectiveness is a concept represented by four perspectives: open systems, organizational learning, high performance work practices, and stake holder (McShane & Von Glinow, 2009). The open-system perspective states that organizations are like organisms living within an external environment; it must adjust and create a relationship to its surroundings. Then arrange their internal subsystem in order to make best use of efficiency and responsiveness (McShane & Von Glinow, 2009).
The organizational learning perspective is a subsystem of open-system, but the position is that organizational effectiveness depends on the capacity that an organization has in sensing changes from its environment; extracts the information and knowledge needed to adapt accordingly. The high-performance work practices (HPWP) perspective states that effective organizations leverage the human capital potential of their employees. Specific HPWPs have been identified, and experts in this field suggest that they need to be bundled together for maximum benefit (McShane & Von Glinow, 2009).
HPWP is a method implemented by an organization that helps in the development of their employees and organizational performance. HPWP encourages empowerment, teamwork, employee participation and learning; motivation, trust, communication, knowledge sharing, and organizational effectiveness. The stakeholder perspective states that effective organizations take into account how their actions affect others, and this requires them to understand, manage, and satisfy the interests of their stakeholders. The perspective incorporates social responsibility into the organizational effectiveness equation (McShane & Von Glinow, 2009).
The four perspectives described provide a several different views of what makes companies more effective, but you also have to add the influence of individual behaviors; is what facilitate to adapt and become more effective in meeting the needs of the organization. There are five types of work-related behavior that are of individual-level that are also discussed often in the organizational behavior literature: task performance, organizational citizenship, counterproductive work behaviors, joining and staying with organization, and work attendance (McShane & Von Glinow, 2009).
Task performance is a goal-directed assessment practice that includes activities to develop performance for the organization. Employees must train and put huge effort in learning the procedure of what needs to be done. They must ensure to do the job right the first time, this will guarantee that employees are learning and putting into practice what they have learned. It also gives them freedom to act and make the right decision at the right time.
It consists of evaluating performance criteria, facilitating effective management, and applying specific criteria to tasks and jobs, fewer errors, better productivity and consistency of communication between groups of employees in the organization. Organizational citizenship is that the employee doesn’t just do their job; they go above and beyond the basic requirements. At the same time help other employees in the organization to develop and progress. OCB goes together with employee’s satisfaction which is a factor that determines the grade of interest and effort that employees will put in their performance.
This satisfaction will help people be more positive about what they do and their company and they are more likely to help other with their jobs. Counterproductive work behavior is the bad behavior inside the organization where it can affect many employees, to include those that are willing to help others be productive and have a better performance in their jobs. This behavior can be bad for the company in many ways that people can see or may not see. For example; the people that starts rumors about the company and the people who work there, this affects the employees, their production and the reputation of the organization.
Joining and staying with the organization is an important factor that many companies must look at when hiring new employees. Thinking about how much will the training costs for a new employee, and making sure that they choose the right person for the job that they will learn fast, and will be willing to take the extra mile in the organization. In order to make this happen organization must ensure that they will offer the commodity that a person is looking for and at the same time ensure that this person is what they are looking for.
Retaining good employees is something that a company must accomplish by giving the satisfaction and security that a person needs. Especially in this time that the economy is bad and it is so hard to find a good job where the people feel secure and satisfy. Maintaining work attendance is very important for organizations in order for them to maintain production and organizational effectiveness. The organization needs to create a sense of importance so that people will maintain work attendance. People that aren’t satisfied with their job and feel stressful will look for any available excuse to miss their jobs.
One way to avoid this is by creating an atmosphere that people feel productive and satisfied within their work environment. Throughout this chapter (McShane & Von Glinow, 2009) have talked about organizational effectiveness and how it needs to maintain a good fit with their external environment by continuously monitoring and adjusting to changes in that environment. But there are three major changes that have affected and will continually keep affecting organizations: globalization, increasing workforce diversity, and emerging employment relationships.
The external environment is continuously changing. These changes require that corporate leaders and other employees adjust to new realities. In this section, we highlight three of the major challenges facing organizations: globalization, increasing workforce diversity, and emerging employment relationships. Globalization refers to economic, social, and cultural connectivity with people in other parts of the world. Many organizations are expanding business to other parts of the world and leaders have to deal with the changes that are coming along with the company’s expansion.
Work force diversity in today’s world of cultural diversity, your business can’t thrive unless you implement a workforce diversity initiative. Besides tapping into the unique abilities and talents of people from different backgrounds, you improve your image in the community by opening up your place of business to anyone regardless of race, color, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation and disability. This action of increasing diversity in the workplace is important to any company because every day there are more and more people coming in from around the world and those are he clients with who the businesses will be making their profit. So they will need to communicate and with whom better than someone who that can understand, communicate and connect with them. Two emerging employment relationship changes are demands for work-life balance and virtual work. The combination of globalization, diversity, and new information technology has created a new level in employment relationships. In the past people use to work an 8 0r 9 hour shift and go home.
Today the demand is much more, they work more hours, spend more time at work and less time home; this create conflicts with their personal lives, more stress costing people to be less satisfied with their jobs and quitting. In today’s world is very important for one’s self and the organization to help create a balance between our personal lives and work. Technology has made this possible, Virtual work is an improvement to employment relationship where it provides the opportunity and balance for people to work at virtually from anywhere away from the office, be more stress free plus enjoy life and work a more.
Globalization, increasing work force diversity, and emerging employment relationships are a few challenges that organizations face and makes OB knowledge more important than ever. But for OB to develop and adapt it relies on beliefs, knowledge and structures from other fields. They are these conceptual anchors that represent the idea that OB should learn from the experiences of other fields, not from isolated research within the organization (McShane & Von Glinow, 2009).
Multidisciplinary anchor, learn from many disciplines; Systematic anchor the use of systematic research which involves forming research questions, collection of data and testing the hypotheses against the data; Contingency anchor is that every action has a different outcome and so every situation should be analyzed and find the best possible approach and finally multiple levels of analysis anchor based on that organizational behavior can be viewed from three levels of analysis (individual, team and organization) .
One topic is usually is classified into one of these three levels but they easily affect the other two, so one should always take into consideration the others to ensure the best possible solution or approach (McShane & Von Glinow, 2009). References: McShane, S. , & Von Glinow, M. (2009). Organizational Behavior 5th Edition. New York: Mcgraw-Hill Irwin. Mintzberg, H. (1981). Organization design: fashion or fit? Harvard Business Review , 103-115.