LIVE PROJECT ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT WITH REFERENCE TO Training Management Introduction Today’s dynamic economy requires the company to constantly train their employees as changes occur at lighting speed. Knowledge continues to expand at a geometric rate while new, never existed fields pop up constituently, arising to become a significant competitor that threatens your business. It is clear that your employee needs training to stay on top of this fast changing environment. However, it is difficult to even know what training your employee needs, let alone what training is available or scheduling the training for your employee.
SunFish HR, training administration supports these needs by providing an extremely complete training management module with the flexibility needed for defining training policies and training types. Furthermore, the module is provided in an open, employee self-service environment while the management defines the workflows and accesses a compete set of reporting and analysis tools. SunFish HR system associates training programs with job codes, monitors courses, tracks session availability, budgets expenses and compares actual with estimated costs.
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SunFish HR improves the efficiency of the training processing by reducing the processing cost of training request and approval since all of the request and approval take place online. All processing and approvals are performed instantaneously without the need for paper records or the costs of transferring paper records between departments for approval and consolidation. The module also allows the employee to propose training on line. The employees themselves maybe in the best position to propose the required training to succeed in their positions.
DEVELOPMENT The term development refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in employees, particularly managerial personnel, through the process of training and educative process. National Industrial Conference Board has defined development as follows:- ” Management development is all those activities and programmers when recognized and controlled, have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in doing so are likely to increase his potential for future assignments. “
Thus, management development is not merely a training or a combination of various training programmes, though some kind of training is necessary; it is the overall development of the competency of managerial personnel in the light of the present requirement as well as the future requirement. For example, S. B. Budhiraja, former Managing Director of Indian Oil Corporation, has viewed that:- “Any activity designed to improve the performance of existing managers and to provide for a planned growth of managers to meet future organizational requirements is management development. He has further emphasized that development is highly individual.
There are many approaches to management development. Different approaches work better with different types of managers. Based on the above concepts, we may derive that management development is based on following assumptions: 1) Management development is a continuous process as there is no time limit for learning to occur. It is not one-shot programme but continues throughout the career of a manager. Though there may be certain one-shot training programmes, these are not the only elements for management development; these are only one type of inputs in management development. ) Management development, or for that matter any kind of learning, is based on the assumption that there, always, exist a gap between an individual’s performance and his potential for the performance. The untapped potential can be translated into actual performance through management development process. Thus, what is required in the process is to inculcate complementary skills in the individual to utilize his full potential. 3) Management development seldom takes place in completely peaceful and relaxed atmosphere; development involves stresses and strains. Often development, itself, becomes a challenging job.
It may be accompanied by errors and failures. However, these errors and failures, perhaps, provide more challenge to a motivated manager for further development. 4) Management development requires clear setting of goals, that is what one wants to achieve through development; how this can be achieved and the time frame for completing the various stages of development. Setting clear goals helps in providing the direction for development and adopting relevant strategies for that. 5) Management development requires conducive environment which should be encouraging and stimulating with continuous feedback about the degree of development.
The environment should be such that learned behavior is appropriately applied to achieve the desired performance. Importance Of Training and Development | | | |• Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further| | |helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals. | | | | |• Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of| | |human resources’ technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. | | | | | |• Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each | | |level.
It helps to expand the horizons of | human intellect and an overall personality of the employees. • Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal. • Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees. • Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness.
It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization. • Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers. • Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life. • Healthy work-environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal. Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence. • Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force. • Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image. • Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. • Training and Development aids in organizational development i. e. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out organisational policies Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display. Benefits SunFish HR simplify and automates the training process, proving efficient, and error free processing. Specifically Training Administration delivers the following benefits: Increased HR department efficiency The HR Department is able to configure rules and workflow related to training request and approval. Once configured, training can be processed with only special items requiring certain approval depends on its workflow.
All approved trainings automatically update the employees’ attendance records. Once the training finished, the system will automatically update the employees’ training histories and competences. The HR department can be completely free from the time consuming job of processing training and focus their full effort on strategic development. Better management oversight with no time wasted Managers at all levels can easily be a part of the approval process based on different criteria, or be able to look into the details of any training requests.
Requests appear in the appropriate managers’ inbox and all required details could be easily accessed. Easy of use, quick and accurate processing for employees Employees can easily submit training requests through the system. Time required to fill in complex forms and forward them for approval is minimized. Employees can login at anytime to review the status of their requests. Improved analysis about training needed for certain employee With the module, the HR Department can analyze training needed for any employee for any position, quickly and easily.
Once configured, the system is even able to suggest the training needed for employees slated for promotion or transfer. Improved analysis of training costs and allocation Managers and the HR department receive a variety of tools to create reports and analyze training received by the employees. Training budget and expense also can be maintained through this module. With these tools, managers are able to determine if the company is spending too much in certain areas of training and make the appropriate adjustments and amend the company policy, if needed. Improved cost control
The management and the HR Department can view the training budget and actual expense at a click of a button, as well as all the training requested. This access to information allows the decision makers to prioritize the training budget more effectively and meet the budget more easily. Increase employee capability without decreasing the productivity SunFish HR is developed with unlimited type of training methods, which include internal training, external training and eLearning. With this various training method, the employee might choose the appropriate training that is convenient for them. Learning was specifically designed for certain employees to attend virtual training during their non-productive hours increasing their overall productivity. Lower paper, printing, approval and mailing costs SunFish HR dramatically reduces the costs associated with the processing of training. Online and automated processing drives down these costs without sacrificing control over training process. Employees with high qualification Since SunFish HR allow HR department automatically identify the weakness that an employee might have and the training needed for that employee, continued development of the employee group as a whole can be achieved.
Features Employee self-service SunFish HR is a 100% web based solution. All functions are made available for the employee to self-serve based on the security settings. For Training administration, this gives the company flexibility in allowing transparency to employees, oversight by management, and easy distribution of reimbursement processing and approval to the appropriate people. The flexibility of the open interface and process will completely change the way training is processed within the company. Approval work flow The workflow manager allows for a flexible definition of approval steps for training.
Training can be classified by type WHERE they originate or any other criteria. The system will automatically determine which people or positions are required for approval, allowing multiple steps for approval and multiple people to process any single step. Notifications are sent automatically by email, and each user can easily see which approvals are pending for processing when they login. Users are able to approve many items in a group or process each individually, and the easy drill-down allows the users to inspect the details of any request.
Online approvals All approvals are process by the appropriate users online. Once approved, a request is instantaneously forwarded to the next in the approval process. If approvals are not processed promptly, indicator lights in the application will identify any bottlenecks and help the managers resolve the inefficiencies. Multiple training method SunFish HR is developed with multiple training methods, including external training, internal training and eLearning. The employees can choose any type of training that fit their needs. Training plan and calendar
SunFish HR allow the HR administration or the supervisor to plan training for their employees or subordinate. This training plan is then used to create the training calendar, which shows all the training scheduled as well as their details. Training budget and expense SunFish HR supports both training budget provided for each positions and the actual training expense. Once the training requested is near or over budget, an alert will sound on the screen and the system can be configured to automatically or manually reject or accept those over budget request. Training result
Once the training is finished, employees’ training result can tracked by the system, automatically affect their competency and skills. HR administration may track the training the employees have completed and the affect to their competency, as a result. HR administration, therefore, can analyze which trainings are cost effective and which are not. Training evaluation SunFish HR is equipped with the function for training evaluation. The employees can log training evaluation surveys. These surveys are designed to give the HR department quick review of the effectiveness of the training and the trainer.
Email alerts Both the employee requesting training and all users involved in the approval are kept up to date on the process by email alert. Users can easily click on links within these emails to get more details on the training, or to process required approvals. Training report SunFish HR is developed with training report module to give overview information on the training process to the HR Administration, supervisor or training participants. Many standard training process reports are available. Trouble lights
Dashboard lights in SunFish HR allow managers and HR deptartment users to watch for and identify issues related to training processing. Dashboard lights can be used to indicate a slow down in approval processing, training expense costs getting too high, or virtually any other aspect of the training process that needs to be tracked. Dashboard lights allow the system to keep track of the process rather then forcing users to waste time reviewing reports to identify any problems. ROLE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT No organization has a choice of whether to train its employee or not.
The primary concern of an organization is its viability and hence its efficiency. Training imparts skills and knowledge to employee in order that they contribute to the organizations efficiency and be able to cope up with the pressure changing environment. The viability depends on the skill of different employee. Technology advance, organizational complexity and human relations these three factor Bass has identified which necessities continuous training in a organization Thus training can play the following roles in organization: 1. Increase in efficiency.
Training increase skills for doing a job in better way he can do much better if he learns how to do job. This becomes more important especially in the context of changing technology because the old method can not be relevant. In such case training is required to maintain a minimum output. For example working on automatic machines requires skills different than that requires to handle manually operated machines. 2. Increase in moral employees: Training improves moral of employees, moral means the mental condition of individual which determines the willingness to corporate.
High moral by employee enthusiasm. Trained employee can see the job more meaningful way because they are able to relate there skills with job. 3. Better human relation: Training increases the quality of human relation in an organization. The problems which create in an organization such as inter personal, inter-group that can be overcome by suitable human relation training. Many technique has been developed through people can be train and develop. 4. Reduced supervision: Train employee requires less supervision and more freedom.
With reduced supervision manager can increase his span of management. This can results into lesser number of intermediate levels in the organization which can save much cost to the organization. 5. Increase organizational viability and flexibility: Trained people necessary to maintain organizational viability and flexibility. Viability relates to survival of the organization in bad days and flexibility relates to sustain its effectiveness despite the loss of its key personnel and making short-term adjustment with the existing personnel. PLANNING TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY
Training and development comprises various activities spread into four stages is as follow. • Assessment stage • Methodology stage • Organizing stage • Evaluation stage According to model for planning and training and development activities an organization has to go through the following stages. 1. Assessing training and development needs and defining training and development objective in the light of these- assessment test. 2. Identifying training and development method that may fulfill the above needs and objectives-methodology stage. 3.
Organizing training and development programmes that incorporate the above methods-organizing stage. 4. Evaluating the effectiveness of training and development pogrammes in the in the light of T&D objectives-evaluation stage. MODELS FOR ASSESING TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDS McGhee And Thayer have presented a model for identifying training and development needs which involves ORGANISATIONAL ANALYSIS, TASK ANALYSIS and MAN ANALYSIS. ORGNISATION ANALYSIS: Organizational analysis is the first factor for identifying training needs. It involves detail analysis of the organization structure, objective, human resource and future plans.
Since training can not overcome all the problems, deficiency other input can also be used in conjunction with training inputs. The starting point in organizational analysis is the identification of its long-term objective and defining its organizational objectives. This organizational objective will give idea about the type of activities to be undertaken by the organization. Based on these organization structure and consequently manpower planning can be prepaid which will give idea about the type of people required. TASK ANALYSIS: It entails a detailed examination of job.
The organization will be able to know the kind of jobs that are to be performed and the type of people to be required to perform the task. In task analysis following guidelines may be adopted. a. List duties and responsibilities of the task under consideration using job description as a guide. b. List the standards of job performance against standards. c. Compare actual performance against standards. d. If there is gap be between the tow, identify the parts of the job which are given troubles in effective job performance. e. Defining training needed to overcome those troubles.
MAN ANALYSIS: The focus of man analysis is on the individual employee, his abilities, his skills and inputs required for job performance. Man analysis helps to identify whether the individual employee requires training, and if so, what kind of trainings. Major source of analysis may be observation at workplace, interviews with his superiors and peers, personal records, production records, various tests, etc. these source will provide clue about the difference between existing skills and attitudes of employee and that he should possess. Thus difference between these two sets can be overcome through training.
PARAMETER TO TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Parameters to training and development needs assessment approach take into account what is happening in the world and what skills are required by different groups of employees to create and sustain competitive advantage. While skill parameters can be prescribed more easily for lower-level employees who are trained for specific jobs like operatives and supervisors, prescribing of skill parameter for managerial personnel is more difficult as they need training and development for developing their careers and not just performing a particular job.
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A MANAGER:- A manager is quite mobile in the organization,Both vertically and horizontally. 1]He moves rapidly from job to job. 2] He is flexible, realistic, and sensitive to the complexities of his work enviorment. 3]He learns his spurs by handling critical assignments, 4]He engages in ‘anticipatory socialisation’; at each stage. 5]high- level managers tend to be more ‘inner-directed’ and less ‘outer-directed’ and less Concerned with pleasing others than are those at lower levels. TECHNICAL SKILLS:- Technical skills are concerned with what is done.
These pertain to knowledge and proficiency in activities involving methods, procedures, and processes. HUMAN SKILLS:- Human skills, also referred to as human relations skills, involve to work Effectively with other on a person-to-person basis and to build up co-operative group relations to accomplish organizational objectives. CONCEPTUAL SKILLS:- Conceptual skills, or general management skills, are concerned with way a thing is done. These skills refer to the ability to see the whole picture, to recognize significant elements in a situation, and to understand the relationship among these elements.
SKILLS REQUIRMENT FOR TOP MANAGEMENT In the academics world, much attention has been focused on the skills and their development,in top management because this level is the major driving force in an organization. osmond has identified eight specific skills required for a top-level manager. these are skills relating to balancing, Integrating, setting priorities, setting and developing standards, conceptualizing, leading, matching Oneself with one’s job, and delegating. SKILL REQUIREMENT FOR MIDDLE MANAGEMENT
In middle management group, there may be managers at different levels placed between the top, Management and supervisors. Usually, they are concerned with a particular functional area of the Organization. There is a tendency of faster upward movement of this group of managers. Therefore,they require variety of skills which must be relevant for their entire career. MIDDLE LINE MANAGEMENT The objective of middle line management development is two-fold: to develop them intellectually And to broaden the outlook and improve the ability to make decision along with some knowledge Of specalised fields. herefore, management development should focus on the following: 1] To establish a clear picture of managerial function and responsibilities; 2] To bring about an awarness of the broad aspects of management problems, and acquaintance with, and appreciation of , inter-deparmental relations; 3] To develop the ability to analyse problems and to take appropriate action; 4] To develop the familiarity with the managerial uses of financial accounting, psychology, business law and business statistics; 5] To inculcate knowledge of human motivation and human relationship; and ] To develop responsible leadership. MIDDLE FUNCTIONAL EXECUTIVES AND SPECIALISTS:- Management development at this level should Focus on the following: 1] To increase knowledge of business function and operations in specialised fields of marketing, production, finance, personnel,etc; 2] To increase proficiency in management tachniques, e. g. ,work study, inventory control, operation research, quality control, etc. 3] To stimulate creative thinking in order to improve methods and procedures; 4] To understand the function performed in the company; ] To understand human relations problems;and 6] To develop the ability to analyse problems in one’s areas of functions. FOR COLLECTING INFORMATION TO ASSESS TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDS, FOLLOWING METHODS ARE USED: 1] Performance and potential appraisal. 2] Tests for training and development. 3] Morale survey. 4] Suggestion system. 5] Specifically designed questionnaires. 6] Interview and personal discussion. 7] Group discussion. 8] Recommendation of immediate and other superiors. 9] Request from likely trainees. Training and Development Methods:
Training and Development methods are means of attaining the desired objectives in a learning situation. Training and development methods can be grouped on the following bases: 1) Training and development methods can be grouped on the basis of the level of personnel in an organization because three categories of personnel-operatives,managers,supervisors –have different training and development needs and therefore ,different training and development methods are suitable for them. 2) Training and development methods can be grouped on the basis of the emphasis which they put on the training and development process.
On –the-job Training and Development: On –the-job Training and Development is most common in organization of any type or size and cover all categories of personnel. It involves “Learning by doing a job” . In this method, the trainee learns while is actually engaged in doing a job. This engagement may be on specific job or there may be job rotation. For operatives who are engaged in routine and repetitive job, on-the-job training is the most important tool. Intially an operative requires the help of a trainer o learn how he should proceed in the job performance.
Gradually, he learns the methods of doing and gets perfection over these. This concept is applied to managerial personnel too at the initial level. Susequently ,they may be put on job rotation. Experience is a valuable asset if used wisely. It contributes to better way of doing the things because the person may be put on job rotation. Experience is a valuable asset if used wisely. It contributes to better way of doing the things because the person may weed out the undesirable practices over the period of time and may retain only the desirable practices.
However, this process of learning may take lot of time on the part of the person to make distinction between what is desirable and what is undesirable. If he has knowledge of the relevant theories of doing a job, he can do so in much lesser time On-the job methods • Job instruction training • Apprenticeship • Coaching/understudy • Mentoring • Job rotation • Participation in deliberation Job Instruction Training: Job instruction training also known as “training step-by-step” involves listing of all necessary steps involves in the the job performance with a sequential arrangements of all steps.
These steps show what is done, how to be done and why to be done. Job instruction training involves the following steps: 1. Providing job information to the trainers by emphasizing its importance, general description of the job and duties and responsibilities involved. 2. Positioning the trainees at workplace and explaining them the various steps involved in job performance and the reasons for these steps. 3. Allowing the trainees to try out work performance on the basis of the steps involved and correcting the errors committed by them. . Encouraging the trainees to ask questions about job performance and satisfying them with further explanations. Apprenticeship: Apprenticeship as a method of training in crafts, trades and technical areas is one of the oldest and the most commonly used method specially when proficiency in a job is the result of a relatively long period of training. The areas in which apprenticeship training is offered are numerous ranging from the job of a electrician, tool-maker etc. Coaching/ Understudy: Coaching is learning through on-the-job experience.
A manager can learn when he is put on a specific job. He can develop skills for doing the job in a better way over the period of time. However, he can learn better if he is given some guidance either in the form of coaching or understudy. Coaching involves direct personal instructions and guidance usually with demonstrations and continuous critical evaluation an d correction. In understudy method, the trainee works normally as assistant under the direction of supervisors of a person. However coaching can be an effective management tool if followed properly.
To be effective, coaching demands that the superior renders assistance when the trainee needs it. The superior should have the ability to communicate and stimulate the trainee and have patience to develop the trainee. Mentoring: Mentoring means providing wise counseling. As a method of human resource development, in mentoring a senior manager acts as a friend,philosopher,and guide to a new recruit and provides him support that the latter needs. The important support that is needed by a new recruit is in the forms of emotional support, teaching coaching, counseling and guiding.
The mentor provides such support to develop the overall personality of the mentee. While the organizations take care of knowledge base and skills set, mentoring complements this by taking care of other aspects of development of the mentee. Mentoring as a tool development of human resources can be made effective if the following condition exist: 1. Top management support the mentoring process. 2. Mentors take genuine interest in their mentees. 3. Individual ideas are respected. 4. Employees are made to sharpen their skills. Job Rotation:
Job Rotation or channel method of development, involves movement of a manager from one job to another job, from one plan to another plan on a planned basis. Such movement may be for period ranging from 6 months to 2 years before a person is establishes in a particular job or department . In this case, the movement is not meant for transfer but meant for learning the interdependence of various jobs so that the trainee can look at his job in a broader perspective. This method is not followed by Grand Hyatt. Participation in Deliberations:
Managerial personnel may be developed through their participation in deliberations and decision making in group form such as committees, task forces, project assignments etc. Though all these groups are formed for different purposes, they contribute to the development of personnel in similar manner. These groups are created by taking managers across a number of functional areas to solve particular problems being faced by the organization. Group decision-making process in committees is such that it contributes to the development of participants.
Group decision-making passes through three stages. 1) The group tries to acquire the largest pool of common information about facts of the situation. 2) The group tries to make inferences and evaluation of information and to form common opinions in a general way. 3) It gets around more specific suggestions and solutions to the problem. A manger can be developed through learning from experience . While experience of a manager on his job may restrict him to know about his job is related with others, in what way it affects others and is affected by others.
Such type of learning enables him to take an integrated view of solving various problems faced by him. Off-the-job methods: Off-the-job training and development is a kind of supplement to on-the-job training and development. In a dynamic environment where things change at a fast pace , new ways of doing things are required which cannot be generated by on-th-job training and development . Therefore, personnel are required to learn something away from there work place Generally as an individual moves upward in an organizational hierarchy , more learning is required through off-th-job training and development.
Therefore there is a need of combining on-the-job and off-the-job training and development. Off-the-job methods: 1) Vestibule training 2) Lectures and conference 3) Syndicate 4) Brainstorming 5) Stimulation training 6) Sensitivity training 7) Transactional analysis Global Hyatt Corporation, headquartered in Chicago, is one of the world’s premier hotel companies. The hotels owned, operated, managed or franchised by its subsidiaries provide authentic hospitality to guests in 45 countries through a passionate commitment to personalized service, cultural relevance, and the environment.
Global Hyatt subsidiaries own, operate, manage or franchise more than 365 hotels and resorts worldwide under the Hyatt®, Hyatt Regency®, Hyatt Resorts™, Grand Hyatt®, Park Hyatt®, Hyatt Place®, and Hyatt Summerfield Suites® and Andaz™ brands with additional properties under development on five continents. Global Hyatt Corporation is also the owner of Hyatt Vacation Ownership, Inc. , operator of Hyatt Vacation Club®. The success of Global Hyatt is driven by the commitment and energy of the thousands of men and women around the world who provide exceptional service to hotel guests. From the U. S. nd Canada, reservations for any Hyatt hotel [pic][pic] | | |Grand Hyatt | |[pic] | |Grand Hyatt™ hotels provide luxurious accommodations, dramatic architecture and state-of-the-art technology in major gateway cities and resort | |destinations. Sophisticated global travelers stay to experience extraordinary restaurants, bars, spas and fitness centers, as well as comprehensive | |business and meeting facilities. Grand Hyatt – For Leisure and Business Travel Grand Hyatt Hotels serve large business destinations that attract leisure and corporate travelers, as well as large-scale meetings and conventions. The business hotels, reflecting grand scale and refinement, include state-of-the-art technology, sophisticated business and leisure facilities, banquet and conference facilities of world-class standard, and specialized programs that cater to discriminating business travel and vacation guests. • Grand Hyatt business hotels offer a variety of restaurants, cafes and bars. Additional lobby lounges are provided for business travel guests to socialize and relax. • Meeting space in Grand Hyatt business hotels is typically, medium-to-large in size offering the perfect size for meetings and conventions. • The elegant ballrooms are perfect for hosting weddings, holiday and cocktail parties of grand scale. Business travel centers are a standard feature of all Grand Hyatt hotels. Offering around the clock corporate travel services, such as secretarial needs and assistance with meetings held at the hotel.
Grand Hyatt business hotels also offer modern fitness centers and a wide choice of recreational facilities. Fitness experts are readily available to offer any additional support. |TRAINING DEFINED | | | |It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviours to | |enhance the performance of employees. | | | |Training is activity leading to skilled behavior. | | |• It’s not what you want in life, but it’s knowing how to reach it | | | |• It’s not where you want to go, but it’s knowing how to get there | | | |• It’s not how high you want to rise, but it’s knowing how to take off | It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcome • It’s not what you dream of doing, but it’s having the knowledge to do it • It’s not a set of goals, but it’s more like a vision • It’s not the goal you set, but it’s what you need to achieve it Training is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current situation looks) at present, and where you will be after some point of time.
Training is about the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) through professional development. References:- www. grandhyatt. com www. sunfish. com www. training. com Books Human resource and development(L M Prasad) Training evaluation and ROI(Amitabh Deo kodwani) Training Success(P K Cheng) Training and development(Sumati Reddy)