The most obvious of its other activities is executive protection, which began after the assassination of President McKinley in 1901 (Treasury, 2002, Online). In the sass, America’s monetary system was very disorganized. Bills and coins were issued by each state through individual banks, which generated many types of legal currency. With so many different kinds of bills In circulation, it was easy for people to counterfeit money. The Secret Service officially went to work on July 5, 1865. He Civil War, was very successful in his first year, closing more than 200 counterfeiting plants. This success helped prove the value of the Secret Service, and in 1866 the National Headquarters was established in the Department of the Treasury building in Washington, D. C (Treasury, 2002, Online). During the evening of the same day President Lincoln established the Secret Service, he was assassinated at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D. C. , by John Wilkes Booth.
The country mourned as news spread that the President had been shot (White House, online). It was the first time in our nation’s history that a President had been assassinated and it was the reason that the Congress eventually, after two more residential assassinations, added Presidential protection to the list of duties performed by the Secret Service. Since 1901, every President from Theodore Roosevelt on has been protected by the Secret Service.
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In 191 7, threats against the President became a felony and Secret Service protection was broadened to include all members of the First Family (White House, online). In 1951, protection of the Vice President and the President-elect was added. After the assassination of Presidential candidate Robert Kennedy in 1 968, President Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) authorized the Secret Service to protect all Presidential candidates. Over the years, the Secret Service’s function has continued to change and grow.
Its functions include: C] Protecting the President and Vice President and their families, candidates for those offices, former Presidents and their families, and visiting heads of foreign states and governments; Enforcing laws against counterfeiting currency, coins, or securities of the united States; 0 Enforcing laws against fraud or forgery of Government checks or bonds, and other securities and obligations of the United States; C] Investigating credit and debit card fraud, computer fraud, and electronic undo transfer fraud: D Furnishing physical security for the White House, the Main other cities. Treasury, 2002, Online). These functions are directly reflected, below, in their mission statement and fall into two distinct categories 0 the investigative mission and the protective mission. The United States Secret Service is mandated by statute and executive order to carry out two significant missions: protection and criminal investigations. The Secret Service protects the President and Vice President, their families, heads of state, and other designated individuals; investigates threats against these prosecutes; protects the White House, Vice President’s Residence, and other buildings within Washington, D.
C. ; and plans and Foreign Missions, implements security designs for designated National Special Security Events. The Secret Service also investigates violations of laws relating to counterfeiting of obligations and securities of the United States; financial crimes that include, but are not limited to, access device fraud, financial institution fraud, identity theft, computer fraud; and computer-based attacks on our nation’s financial, banking, and telecommunications infrastructure. Protection remains the Secret Service’s primary mission.
The Secret Service Uniformed Division shares in accomplishing this mission through its protection of the White House and its immediate surroundings, as well as the residence of the Vice President, and over 170 foreign embassies located in Washington, D. C. Originally a force comprised of a few members of the military and the Metropolitan Police Department, it began formalized protection of the White House and its grounds in 1860. This unit was under the direction of the White House Military Aide until July 1, 1922 when President Warren G. Harding prompted the establishment of a White House Police Force.
It was not until 1930, after an unknown intruder managed to walk into the White House dining room, that President Herbert Hoover recognized the need for the White House Police and the Secret Service to Join forces. President Hoover wanted the Secret Service to exclusively control every aspect of Presidential protection; therefore, Congress placed the supervision of the White House Police under the direction of the Chief of the Secret Service. In 1970, Public Law 91-217 expanded the role of the White House Police, newly named the Executive Protective Service, to include protection of politico missions in the Washington, D.
C. ,area. Congress later added the protection of the Vice President’s immediate family to the Executive Protective Service’s growing responsibilities in 1974. After several name revisions, the force officially adopted its current name, the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division in 1977. The Special Agent Division assists with the Secret Service’s protective mission through their work with personal protection. Agents in this division are responsible for the welfare, safety, and protection of certain eligible individuals. The Secret
Service protective methods are generally the same for all individuals protected. Permanent prosecutes, such as the President and the First Lady, have details of special agents assigned to them. Temporary prosecutes, such as candidates and foreign dignitaries, have details of special agents on temporary assignment from The Secret Service does not discuss methods or means in any detail, however generally speaking, the advance team surveys each site to be visited. From these surveys, the members determine manpower, equipment, hospitals, and evacuation routes for emergencies.
Fire, rescue, and other public service personnel in the community are alerted. A command post is established with full communications facilities. The assistance of the military, federal, state, county, and local law enforcement organizations is a vital part of the entire security operation. Before the protector’s arrival, the lead advance agent coordinates all law enforcement representatives participating in the visit. Personnel are posted and are alerted to specific problems associated with the visit. Intelligence information is discussed, identification specified, and emergency options outlined.
Prior to the arrival of the protected, checkpoints are established, and access to the secured area is limited. During the visit, Secret Service and local law enforcement personnel form a network of support for members of the detail surrounding the protected. The Secret Service command post acts as the communication center for protective activities, monitors emergencies, and keeps all participants in contact with one another. After the visit, agents analyze every step of the protective operation, record unusual incidents, and suggest improvements for the future. Protective research is an integral component of all security operations.
Agents and specialists assigned to protective research evaluate information received from law enforcement/intelligence agencies and a variety of other sources regarding individuals or groups who may pose a threat to Secret Service prosecutes. They review questionable letters and emails received at the White House and maintain a 24-hour operation to receive, coordinate and disseminate protection-related information. While most people associate the Secret Service with Presidential protection, their original mandate was to investigate the counterfeiting of U. S. Currency–which they still do.
The Secret Service’s primary investigative mission is to safeguard the payment and financial systems of the United States. This has been historically accomplished through the enforcement of the counterfeiting statutes to preserve the integrity of United States currency, coin and financial obligations. Since 1984, their investigative responsibilities have expanded to include crimes that involve financial institution fraud, computer and telecommunications fraud, false identification documents, access device fraud, advance fee fraud, electronic funds transfers, and money laundering as it relates to their core violations.
Three different divisions assist the Secret Service in accomplishing this investigative mission the Special Agent Division, the Financial Crimes Division, and the Forensic Services Division. Due to my personal interests, I found the Forensic Services Division particularly interesting. Forensic examiners in the Secret Service Forensic Services Division (FSP) provide analysis for questioned documents, fingerprints, false identification, credit cards, and other related forensic science areas. Examiners use both instrumental and chemical analysis when reviewing evidence. FSP also manages the Secret Service’s polygraph program nationwide.
The division coordinates photographic, Identification Program. In addition, FSP is responsible for handling the Forensic Hypnosis Program. Much of the forensic assistance the Secret Service offers is unique technology operated in this country only by FSP. The Secret Service has approximately 5,000 employees, and field offices located throughout the continental U. S. ; in Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerco Rich; and liaison offices in Paris, France; London, England; Bonn, Germany; Rome and Milan, Italy; Hong Kong, China; Ottawa, Montreal and Vancouver, Canada; Nicosia, Cyprus; Bogota, Colombia; Manila, Philippines; and Bangkok, Thailand.
It has more than 2,100 special agents who are rotated throughout their careers between investigative and permanent protective assignments. Agents assigned to investigative duties in the Service’s field offices also serve as a source of additional manpower for temporary protective details, such as those for candidates or visiting foreign dignitaries. The Secret Service also has approximately 1,200 officers in the Uniformed Division. Officers of the Uniformed Division carry out their protective responsibilities through special support units (Counterspies, Canine Explosive Detection Team, Emergency Response
Team, Crime Scene Search Technicians, Special Operations Section, Magnetometers) and a network of fixed security posts, foot, bicycle, vehicular and motorcycle patrols. Numerous specialists in a wide variety of occupations contribute their expertise to the Secret Service’s investigative and protective missions. They include security specialists, electronics engineers, communications technicians, research psychologists, computer experts, armored, intelligence analysts, polygraph examiners, forensic experts, and professionals in many other fields.
The United States Secret Service is dramatically different today than it was Just here years ago. This is primarily due to the events surrounding September 11, 2001. That morning, there were 4,600 employees of the Secret Service deployed around the world while a special contingent was with President George W. Bush at an elementary school. In a matter of minutes, the Secret Service deployed armed agents into Lafayette Park to clear it and evacuated the Capitol and west wing of the White House. Four planes had been hijacked by terrorists, the World Trade Center was in ashes, the Pentagon had been hit, and the nation knew that it was at war.
What kind f war, and how it would involve the Secret Service would remain to be seen. On October 26, 2001, in a crowded White House Press Room, President George W. Bush signed the Patriot Act, a broad-sweeping anti-terrorism bill. The full text of his speech is included on the White House web site, along with a recorded TV version. The President explained in his speech that this bill is an “essential step in defeating terrorism, while protecting the constitutional rights of all Americans [and giving] intelligence and law enforcement officials important new tools to fight a present danger (Bush, 2001, Online).
The changes, effective today, will help counter a threat like no other our nation has ever faced. We’ve seen the enemy, and the murder of thousands of innocent, unsuspecting people. They recognize no barrier of morality. They have no conscience. The terrorists cannot be reasoned with.. .But one thing is for certain: These terrorists must be pursued, they must be defeated, and they must be brought to Justice.. Since the 1 lath of September, the men and women of our intelligence and law enforcement agencies have been relentless in their response to Less than three days after the attack, the Secret Service held a press conference and he spokesman started out by pointing out that the Treasury Department has a strong personal agenda following the attack, since “TAFT, Customs, IRS CLC and the Secret Service all had facilities at the World Trade Towers that were completely destroyed by Tuesday’s terrorist actions” (2001, FAST online).
The spokesman then explained that in addition to the more traditional law enforcement role, Treasury is committed to fighting terrorism with every asset that we have available and then announced that Treasury has established an inter-agency team dedicated to the disruption of terrorist fundraising. The team is designed to increase our ability to identify foreign terrorist groups, assess their sources and methods of fundraising, and provide information that will make clear to law enforcement officials how terrorist funds are moved.
This team will ultimately be transformed into a permanent Foreign Terrorist Asset Tracking Center in the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Asset Control(OPAC). This is an extraordinary effort that really illustrates the Treasury Department’s creativity in developing new ways to combat terrorists (2001 , FAST online). And in a very unusual cooperative effort, the Secret Service, the FBI, and the private sector, have Joined forces to create a national Cybernetic Response and Reporting System.
The first step was a reporting procedure and guidelines for companies to report violations, and these guidelines were published in the trade Journal for Close (CIO, 2002). The CIO Cybernetic Response & Reporting Guidelines provide step-by- step information on how businesses should plan and respond to attacks on their information systems, including worms, viruses, hacks and other breaches. The guidelines advise Close and business leaders to establish a relationship with law enforcement today, before their next attack happens.
The document also provides suggested points of contact, as well as an easy-to-follow report form detailing the initial information law enforcement needs to investigate. Also, the FBI and the United States Secret Service are expanding the ways that they can share federal Jurisdiction for investigating and prosecuting cybercafé across state lines. The need for cyber reporting guidelines came to the forefront at a CIO magazine conference in October 2001 when a United States Attorney addressed Close on law enforcement post September 1 lath and the need for businesses to report cybercafé to officials.
Discussions are also underway for determining ways in which the Secret Service can work with the INS. As Miller (2001), points out Nearly half a billion foreigners enter the U. S. Each year, and the most stringent demand many of them will face is filling out a form asking where they’re headed; the forms are then shipped off to storage, where they probably won’t ever be seen again. What the country needs is a high-tech method of tracking foreigners as they enter and leave. Right now, the federal government doesn’t even know how many people are in the country with expired visas, let alone who they are or where they live (Miller, 2001 , 21).
It is safe to surmise that the Secret Service will be greatly involved in determining Service by surprise. Indeed, authors such as Steven Emerson have been writing about Islamic terrorists in the United States since the early sass. In his troubling book American Jihad, Emerson details how the United States government and the Secret Service are actively monitoring terrorist cells affiliated with Osama bin Alden’s al Qaeda network in eleven cities, from Florida to Boston to Denver to Houston. In January 2003, W. Ralph Bash was sworn in as the 21st Director of the United States Secret service.
Director Bash was charged with developing a post September 1 lath strategic plan that could meet the challenges the Secret Service face in their ever expanding mission after being realigned under the Department of Homeland Security. In his strategic plan, Director Bash addresses the Secret Service’s goals and objectives, along with the means and strategies to accomplish them. The Secret Service has three goals 0 the protective strategic goal, the investigative strategic goal, and the support strategic goal (Secret Service, online).