Introduction to Public Management Assignment Student no: 210516235 Name: Nkosinathi Surname: Manyathi Topic The rise and fall of public administration theory has shaped public management in South Africa. Critically explore the role of New Public Management in the functioning of the South African public service. Introduction Ever since 1980’s The Bureaucratic Public Administration model of Max Weber and Woodrow Wilson the organisational theorist had used rules to accomplish the organisational goals.
Kelman (1990:260) in his contrast statement he argued that the problems with general rule is that they may be inappropriate in some situation. The existing rules may be inappropriate if the environment had change. Therefore in such cases mangers shall be given the right for decision making otherwise the organisation will pay the price. These administration theories were challenged by Anglophonic countries by the establishment of the new model of public sector management The New Public Management (NPM) which had emerged even in South Africa but not the way as it is in Anglophonic countries.
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Definition by Public Sector Management Reforms in Africa, (2004:6). New Public Management (NPM) emphasizes the shift of the state from Traditional Public Administration towards ‘managerialism’. The traditional model of organization is based on the principles of bureaucratic hierarchy to deliver the service which includes planning and centralization, direct control and autonomy, had been replaced by the enterprise culture. NPM has provided faster-moving service delivery organizations that would be kept lean by the pressures of competition, and need to be user-responsive in order to survive.
It supposes to devolve the organizational structure from manager’s perspective. With a downsized number of staff, many services would be ‘contracted out’ instead of assuming that in-house provision is best. New Public Management New Public Management is not a coherent theory but rather a discrete set of ideas that can be broadly divided in to two categories (Cameron, 2009; Hood (1991) in Cameron, 2009:2) defined it as the marriage of two different streams of ideas .
The one was business-type managerially stream borrowed from the private sector and the other stream borrowed from the private sector and the other was the new institutional economics which draws on public choice, transaction cost theory and principal-agent theory (Kelman, 1990: 26-27). During the early 1999’s South African public service had been reformed from bureaucratic administration to New Public Management . Little work was done by African National Congress on the nature of the post-apartheid public service (Cameron, 2009:4).
It had been argued that New Public Management had been highly influential on shaping post-apartheid public service reform in South Africa, of which this bureaucratic administration had an era on bureaucratic strategy of using rule as vigilant character such that any strategy and design must be based on rules (Kelman, 1990: 26-27). They did not realise that rules guards against disasters but excellence requires the ability to demonstrate uniqueness, but rules implies uniformity (Kelman, 1990: 26-27). Rules management wasn’t good for South Africa because of its ever changing environment.
New Public Management had created many debates even in schools that it had supplemented the Traditional Public Administration practices by moving to take issues with the use of market paradigms in public administration, it had introduced private individual values in public common community ideals (Cameron, 2009:4-5). While Mafunisa opinion was that the government receive what so called ‘public profit’ in-place of privet profit. South African New Public Management shape seems to have two broadly categories.
Firstly the clear implementation of the professional management role, such as provision of the efficient required service and its responsiveness, the use of ‘ever-more-sophisticated technologies’, performance agreement including service delivery, greater autonomy and flexibility and new financial techniques. Secondly there is greater use of market mechanisms, such as privatisation and public-private partnership in service provision, measuring performance, delegation and devolution, emphasis upon contracts and markets final the increased emphasis on audit and inspection. Cameron (2009) & Pollit (1990) in Kieron (1995)) “During the apartheid era South Africa public service was isolated out of touch with international development in Public Sector Reform “,Thorhill (2008) in Cameron (2009) said. New Public Management (NPM) ideology is based on generic management idea and institutional economics (Hughes (2003) in Cameron (2009:1). Growth in Public Sector Reform (PSC) of South Africa was influenced by global economic influences such as the need for restraining public spending internationally, lighten the bureaucratic burden and reshape the unaffordable social policies according. Pollitt and Bouckaert (2004:28) in Cameron, 2009:4) According to Bardill (2000:103) argument in Cameron (2009:4) argued that Public Service Reform in South Africa was influenced by growing global competition, the failure of centralised state-dominated development strategies, the worsening economic crisis in the developing world and the impact of IMF/World Bank structural adjustment programmes. South Africa was influenced by Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) was initiated by ANC government after the 1994 election.
And it was an integrated coherent socio-economic programme which attempted to integrate development, reconstruction, redistribution and reconciliation into a unified programme and was intended to the social democratic vision of the welfare of the poor (Cameron, 2009:4). Another one was Macro-Economic Strategy Employee in1996 which was adapted to committee the government to more orthodox fiscal policies (Cameron, 2009:4). GEAR was the macroeconomic strategy aimed at reducing the government budget deficit. Only two of the implements of GEAR implemented (Cameron, 2009:4).
Previous Minister of Department of Administration in South Africa, Geraldine Fraser Molaketi in the interview stated that ‘Public Reform was not seen as a sexy topic’, so there were need for the transformation from an apartheid-driven bureaucracy towards a more democratic public service that put public first. The only problem they had was the issue of senior officials who had limited knowledge about Public Service Reform, so they needed source of influence in order to be in line with the ‘international best practice. (Cameron, 2009:5).
White Paper on the Transformation of the Public Service laid down the national policy framework for the transformation of public service and warned against the uncritical adoption of the NPM framework because of the environment that we have (Bardill, 2000; 105. in Cameron, 2009:5). But Ncholo in Cameron, 2009:5, argued that there was no need for the transformation of the national policy. Instead it had to be father entrenched in the Constitution so that it became inline with the Public Administration and Bill of Right values and principles to commit the government to a broad development, redistributive and participative role .
Unfortunately it was not meat because this would pressurise the government to improve the performances of public service. (Levin, 2004:2 ; Ncholo, 2000:88. in Cameron, 2009:5. ) The Precedential Review Commission of Inquiry on Transformation on Reform in the Public Review Commission set up the evaluation of public service and made recommendation some of which was implemented by new government (Cameron, 2009:5).
But Mr Zola Skweyiya criticised the Commission’s report because it had heavily adopted the British and Commonwealth experience (Bardill, 2000:113) in Cameron, 2000:5 of which was promoted in the lower-income countries by Commonwealth Secretariat (Gasper, 2002:19. in Cameron, 2009:5). Hence much reform in South Africa parallels those which were implemented in USA and Britain (Miller, 2005:70 in Cameron, 2009; 5). But Richard Levin (2004:12-13) in contrast argued that Public Service Reform in South Africa was shaped by the tenets of NPM including the focus on decentralised management of human resource and finance.
As the country won’t like to change it constitution so the NPM needed to be transformed and implemented in The Republic of South Africa(Cameron,2009:5). Our country came up with its ‘new’ NPM which had an Anti-NPM to move away from the Anglophonic country ways, meaning that it’s like to borrow the NPM skills and techniques to modernise the public service of RSA without the Anglican’s NPM ideology framework. Fortunately the DPSA adopted it quite well. Ex-Minister of DPSA Fraser Molaketi interviewed by Cameron, 2009:6) South Africa seams as it had adopted the view of Pollitt (1990. pp. 2-3) in Kieron Walsh, 1995. Of which he discussed that NPM is defined as it’s involves two strands. The first strand involves the continuous increases in efficiency, the use of “ever-more-sophisticated technologies”, labour force disciplined to productivity, clear implementation of the professional management role.
Secondly is the improvement of the quality emphasis upon devolution and delegation, appropriate information system, emphasis upon contracts and market, measuring performance, increase emphasis on audit financial and inspection. Decentralisation Decentralisation is one of the features of NPM derived from “managerialism” (Public Sector Management Reform in Africa, 2004:15). Decentralisation concerned about giving managers greater management authority, responsibility and freedom to manage their unit in order to achieve the most efficient output. Cameron, 2009:6. & Public Sector Management Reform in Africa, 2004:15). The five main dimensions to decentralized management are the breaking up of monolithic bureaucracies into autonomous agencies, delegation of budget and financial controls, promotion of quasi-markets in public sector transaction, separation of provisions and provision functions and development of new forms of corporate governance and board of directors model for the modernized public service (Bangura, 2000. in Public Sector Management Reform in Africa, 2004:15).
Prior to 1994 in the public service was highly centralised in the way that The Commission for Administration had extensive powers over the setting of Human Resource functions (Cameron 2009:6). In 1996 the executive powers of Public Sector Commission (PSC) was transferred to the Mister of Public Service and Administration (Cameron 2009:6). The public Service Law Amendment Act of 1997 made the Minister of DPSA to be responsible for structure ,function transfusion, post establishment creation ,grading and adoption of post and appointment, promotions and transfer. Ncholo(2000:89-90) in Cameron (2009:7) Downsizing Downsizing involves the cutting the size of the public Sector in activities that was become absolute to make provision for more efficient and effective public service and it has been a structural part of developing countries and in South Africa had been an objective by maintain the countries budget (Lirbin, 1999 :19;Ncholo,2000:98,Burger,2006:2; in Cameron , 2009 ; 13). Voluntary Severance Programmes (VSP’s) were introduced by government in 1996 to encourage the existing staff to retire prematurely (Cameron ,2009:14).
Authors argued that it was not successful strategy because it was prepared for posts eradication, led to the departure of skilled and loss of experienced and personnel staff in many departments . (Larbin ,1999 :19; Palidono,1999:5-6; Burgers,2006:12; Ncholo,2000:98; in Cameron, 2009:14). This Downsizing and VSP was a good strategy in terms of remuneration to employees but it was unsuccessful acknowledged by Precedent Review Commission 1998. Same authors pointed out that it rises the budget spending f government so after 2000 new Minister of DPSA Geraldine Fraser-Molaketi, viz rightsizing that increase staff members. After that the competition increased to promote the effective achievements (Ncholo, 2000:98; Burger, 2006:12; in Cameron, 2009:14-15. Corporatisation Corporatisation transform departments in to free standing enterprises or department of which Hood, (1991:4-5) stated that it is a shift towards disaggregated unit around products funded separately and engaged with each other (Cameron, 2009).
Cameron(2009:5) stated that corporatisation in RSA was in a form of public entities which was due to number of reasons such as the restructuring of national department provided for a logical split between policy and execution function, to promote service delivery by circumventing the bureaucratic system of service to improve staff remuneration and ‘gear up the service .
Example: There were about 282 public entities congregated in the Departments of Transport and Trade and Industry in 2008, some public entities have become so autonomous that it became very difficult and highly complicated for government to influence their service delivery outcomes. (DPSA, 2000. in Cammeron, 2009) Performance Management attempts to improve service delivery and accountability This is another feature of NPM which has been a private sector technique.
It treats public service users as a customer who entitles to shopping. NPM recognizes the need of direct accountability between managers and public because they are treated as customers (Cameron 2009:24). Kieron (1999:204) said “decentralization itself creates the need for centralization, particularly in relation control of the resources but the issue is how independently can be maximized at the same time as ensuring that common interests, accountability can be recognized”.
New Public Management market-driven accountability is to private customers rather than to the collective, particularly the low-income citizens’ side will be discouraged (Cameron, 2009:24). In RSA the White Paper on Transforming Public Service delivery (RSA, 1997) is commonly known as the Batho Pele, people first, which aims at making the service a priority to the public service, improvement of the service.
It entails the stuff from bureaucratic system process towards new way of responsiveness and putting public first (Cameron, 2009:25). Batho Pele comprises of 8 principles namely, consultation with citizens on level and quality of service, the setting of service standard, equal access, courtesy and consideration, provision of information on eligibility, openness and transparency regarding cost and responsibilities redress and value for many (Cameron,2009:25).
RSA government had attempted to put public first but the evident suggested the mixed result of service. The source is the poor skill level within the public service which makes the achievement of development state goals unrealistic, secondly there is no merit to improve effectiveness and enhance the efficiency improve and maintain the public sector employment, thirdly support system and learning because of the quality scarcity of public servants deliver (Picard, 2005:69:71. ; Posel (1999) in Cameron(2009:28).
Finely, the issue of rapid mobility within Public Service of which staff get promoted very quickly meaning they did not get enough time for their innovation of their skills (PSC, 2008C165 in Cameron, 2009:29) In terms of ensuring the effective use of Information and Information Technology in government that facilitate the use of information Technology for the modernised of government and the establishment of ever sophisticated like E-government practices within an acceptable information security environment .
The objective is to improve the access to government service by providing service in an efficiency manner for 24 hours (Annual Report 2005/2006:15). Accrual Accounting New Public Management Applicant Is the head of public management reform which supplements cash accounting system to ensure that the financial information available to management is current, and provides meaningful analyses or resources usage within a department and it’s significant of the reform to the financial management of government. Politicians in New Public Management
Politics is the central feature of the new management of public service. Politicians play a strategic role of policy setting, goals setting, monitoring the performance of bureaucrats by establishing the system to measure weather the targets are met and being involved in the day-to-day operation issues (Walsh, 1999:104). Corruption RSA had established the anti- corruption to fight and improve ethical conduct in public sector by establishing the strategy and partnership that improve ethical conduct and practices.
Anti-corruption Policy is striving towards an ethical public service which enhances to the rules of law and codes of conduct and effective mechanism to reverse and corruption and maladministration. Anti-Corruption Monitoring and Evaluation is striving to implement the progress and it is provided to The Cabinet and Parliament on an ongoing basis. International Anti-corruption Co-operation fight international corruption faces RSA . They Brave is Global forum Fight Corruption that they state in annual reports (Report, 2006/2007:25). Conclusion
New Public Management had emerge in South Africa to change the public service management of post-apartheid bureaucratic administration, which used rule as the sound character, by putting people first on their organisational strategy, by decentralising the execution powers to Ministers and to managers and treated public service users as customers who concerned about quality and satisfaction and public servants as private managers who concerned about profit but in public management concerned about public desires which also led to accountability of public servants to the public.
BIBLIOGRAPH Kelman, S. 1990. Procurement and Public Management: The Fear of Discretion and the Quality of Government Performance . American Enterprise Institute Washington, D. C. Professor Robert Cameron. New Public Management Reforms in the South African Public Service: 1999-2008. 2009. Department of Political Studies University of Cape Town. Kieron Walsh. 1995. Public Services and Market Mechanisms: Competition, Contracting and the New Public Management.
Macmillan Press LTD. London. Public Sector Management Reform Ababa, Ethiopia December 2003. Available : http://www. uneca. org. Prof Richard Levin, Public Service and Administration: Batho Pele Annual Report, 2005/2006. Prof Richard Levin, Department of Public Service and Administration: Batho Pele Annual Report, 2006/2007. Service and Administration