ABSTRACT The study was concerned with the factors affecting the performance of secretaries in organizations and a case study of private and government aided primary and secondary schools in Masindi Town Council. Secretaries are sole sources of organizational success however they are seen not to perform as expected. ?The objectives of the study were To examine whether wages and salaries affect the performance, to find out the effects of education and training on the performance and to determine the extent to which the relationship between secretaries and their working environment affect their performance.
Review of the related literature was made to carry out the study successfully. Descriptive research design and stratified random sampling and sample size of 30 respondents was used. Data was obtained from both primary and secondary sources, questionnaires and interview as instruments of data collection, data was presented in tables of frequency and percentages.
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It was concluded that the factors sighted as objectives affected the performance of secretaries and the researcher made the following recommendations; equal pay for all employees according to the level of responsibility and work done, secretaries be taken for further training and only employ those with enough skills and qualifications, working relations be encouraged at all levels, physical working environment be improved and equipment be purchased.
CHAPTER ONE 1. 0INTRODUCTION This chapter is an introduction to research, which presented the background to the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, hypotheses, area and scope of the study, significance of the study and definition of terms. 1. 1BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Secretaries are one of the most vital workers in organizations hence playing a very great role in the smooth flow of organizational work. A fully ualified and equipped secretary takes shorthand dictation, transcribes it on the typewriter or computer, supervises, serves as a link between top management and their juniors, acts in the absence of the employer, organizes meetings, agenda, sitting arrangements, takes minutes, they act as a centre of communication according to White Head (1985) by receiving and sending memos, letters, telephone calls, carries out filing system, arrange travel appointments for the employer, keeps secrets of the employer and the organization and ensures that work delegated to her is finished in time.
A secretary has to report at the workplace before the employer and arrange the office. Thelma J. Foster (1994) a secretary saves her employers time. FW Taylor puts it that, people are only motivated by money and rewards. Lawler and Victor Vroom (Expectancy theory) people’s behaviour is affected by how their work is related to their rewards. According to Richard L. Daft (1996) the wage and salary structure is an important part of the compensation package that maintains a productive workforce and equally important are the benefits offered by the organization.
A US chamber of Commerce Survey has revealed that benefits in general compose more than 1/3 of labour costs and in some industries nearly 2/3. As a result of little motivation in terms of rewards secretaries some times are absent in their offices, not minding on their jobs and resorting to other productive businesses for survival which affects their performance. An important element of secretary’s success and value lays in the skills that is interpersonal and managerial skills which enhances organizations reputation. Western worlds’ organizations practice on-the-job-training (OJT).
In 1987 IBM spent more than $750 million on training its employees secretaries inclusive. Great Plains software of Fargo, North Dakota, replaced one-day orientation with an intense three-month training program. Secretaries are currently pursuing education at higher levels of learning which is making employers delegate them work as a source of motivation. However some Organizations still neglect training secretaries’ in spite of the new technology. Secretaries must have good relationships with their working environment that s internal environment consisting of employers, other workmates, external environment which includes suppliers, customers, competitors and the physical environment including office location and accommodation and the surrounding. In their endeavor to maintain such relationships they have been seen face a number of problems. According to the acquired need theory there is need for affiliation that is the desire to form close personal relationships, avoid conflicts and establish worm relationships. At work are mature, adults who are independent, have deep interests, and behave in many complex ways (Chris Argris).
A survey on Human Rights Management in the complaint to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) 1995 found out that 84% of them dealt with sexual harassment complaints with the biggest percentage being secretaries. This has led to secretaries revenging on customers and visitors by treating them harshly like bullying which causes stress “bad bosses” hotline in December 1997 38% of the callers complained of bullying whenever the secretary’s employers could not be around which is a poor reputation of the organization. 1. 2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Secretaries are very important in the success and performance of an organization and therefore they are expected to perform well in all organizations they work in. Unfortunately some of the organizations and secretaries have failed to achieve better results. There are still low levels of productivity, lack of commitment to work, absenteeism on the side of secretaries and undermining secretaries by paying them low salaries compared to their work, treating them as low ranked people, few opportunities for training on the side of employers.
It is from this dilemma that the researcher decided to carry out a research on the Factors Affecting the Performance of Secretaries who are taken to be the Sole source of organizations’ success. 1. 3PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of the study was to find out the factors affecting the performance of secretaries in Organizations particularly primary and secondary schools in Masindi Town Council. 1. 4OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objectives of the study were; I. To examine whether wages and salaries affect the performance of secretaries. II.
To find out the effects of education and training on the performance of secretaries. III. To determine the extent to which the relationship between secretaries and their working environment affect their performance 1. 5HYPOTHESES OF THE SALARY The hypotheses of the study were; I. Wages and salaries do not affect the performance of secretaries. II. The performance of secretaries depends on the level of education and training. III. The relationship between secretaries and their working environment affect their performance. 1. 6AREA AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study focused on the factors affecting the performance of secretaries in organizations. The researcher focused on both private and government aided primary and secondary schools in Masindi Town council which is situated 44kms from the Northern Highway branching off from Kafu Bridge. The research included secretaries from different schools. Primary data was obtained from secretaries and secondary data was obtained from text books, News papers, Bulletins, and related research reports. The study took one month. 1. 7SIGNIFICANCIES OF THE STUDY
I. The findings will act as a guideline to the administrators in the organizations concerning their relationships with their secretaries. II. The study will be used by employers in designing incentives, salaries and wages for their secretaries. III. The findings of the study will be used as a basis for further research and investigation by other researchers. 1. 8DEFINATION OF TERMS FACTORS:Are several things or situations that cause or influence the result of something. AFFECT:Is an act or something that produces a change.
PERFORMANCE:Is how well a certain group of people do a piece of work or activity. SECRETARY:A person who works in an office working for another person dealing with letters, telephone calls, typing and keeping records and arranging meetings for the organization. TRAINING:It’s a teaching practice in order to bring to a desired standard of behaviour, efficiency or physical condition. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 0INTRODUCTION This chapter consists of the related literature review as already presented by scholars and other researchers.
Literature focused on in this chapter was particularly on wages and salaries, education and training and relationships of secretaries and their working environment which were the major factors in this study. 2. 1SALARIES AND WAGES IN RELATION TO PERFORMANCE According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s dictionary wages are a regular money payment made or received for work or service and salary is the money that employees or people working in an office usually paid every month. Pay is a prime reason for working though it is not the only reason and main motivator to good performance at work.
However according to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, among the physiological needs there is need for salary for fulfillment of survival hence wages and salaries are main essentials of work since they are for human survival. Vroom (1990) asserts that people will be motivated to do things to reach a goal if they believe worthiness of that goal and they can see what they do will help them in achieving it. It is observed that a secretary’s performance will be determined by the value placed on the outcome of his/her efforts.
Millins (1990) each individual in an organization has personal goals which are related to those of the organization and the goals are set up for a particular purpose. Therefore organizations and individuals (workers) need each others fulfillment of these goals. According to Armstrong (1988) it is estimated that any organization which ignores the needs of its workers causes itself fundamental problems. Therefore employers should improve on the job satisfaction to increase job performance.
A motivated secretary is happy and satisfied which results into better performance. Therefore for an employer to increase performance, out put quality and quantity, he/she has to motivate his/her workers. Workers major concern is to access the benefits that will accrue to the organization as a result of performance in accordance to organizational needs. According to Heinemann (1995) salaries and wages are a way of compensation, rewarding of employees for the work done. Rewards have an effect on the performance of secretaries.
Raising wages can lead secretaries feeling more valued and in response work harder which increases productivity on the other hand reducing wages and salaries makes them feel inferior which leads to detoriation in their morale at the work hence low productivity. Old Corn (1996) states that pay and conditions is a shorthand phase for all benefits an employer brings to an employee ragging importance from basic pay and salary through bonus systems and hours of work for such intangible physical conditions for the place of work. Dransfield et al (1996) financial incentives, scheme improves productivity.
However it is worth emphasizing that productivity can be increased or reduced by factors outside the control of workers efforts like improved technology and equipment. Dransfield adds that when pay is paid in form of organization shares, the workers or secretaries’ hope to increase commitment and loyalty. Edward Lawer has bobbed the approach as “the new pay” or “the strategic pay” which is based on responses to the world of dynamic engagement that the organizations face. New global competition and a changing labour force spell the need for creative human resource strategies especially with regard to compensation, wages and salaries inclusive.
Employees’ secretaries inclusive should be paid well and motivated in order to perform in accordance to the global competition. Equal Pay Act of 1963 which was an amendment to the Fair Labour Standards Act (FLSA) in chapter 6 commonly referred to “Equal Pay for Equal Work” law. Except for differences that are justified on the basis of better performance, longer service and quantity or quality work; similar pay must be given for jobs requiring equal skills, equal effort, with equal responsibilities and performance under similar working conditions.
It further forbids employers to pay employees differently on the basis of sex. Equity theory by Professor J Stacy Adams University of North Carolina. The theory proposes that perceived inequity is a motivational force. When a person believes that she has been inequitably treated in comparison with others in terms of payment. She will attempt to eliminate the inequity. People are believed to evaluate equity by a ratio of inputs to out puts. Inputs to a job include experience, effort and ability. Out puts from a job includes pay, recognition, promotions and benefits.
Therefore equal pay for equal work or out put to avoid comparisons amongst workers which is a source of misunderstandings in organizations However 40 years ago Professor Hertzberg demonstrated pay has great potential to cause dissatisfaction at work. The best way to pay is a monthly salary. M C Gregor as Theory X (motivation theorists) money is not a motivator. 2. 2THE EFFECT OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SECRARIES. Education is a process of teaching, training and learning especially in schools or colleges to improve knowledge and develop skills.
Training is a teaching practice in order to bring to a desired standard of behaviour, efficiency or physical condition. Training is a planned process to modify attitude knowledge or skill behaviour through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. Training also is a process of enabling people to become more productive, effective and better members of the organization as well as serving to meet the needs of individuals. Training should be designed to fill the gap between what a person can do at that particular moment and what he or she should be able to do when given appropriate training.
The purpose of training is to develop the abilities of employees to satisfy the current and future needs of the organization. Training can be on-the-job-training, orientation, classroom, programmed and computer assisted instructions, conferences and case discussion groups. Education and training is an essential to perfect work that is why according to Richard L. Daft (1996) there is much need for training that is why U. S. corporations with 100 or more employees spend $52. 2 billion in one recent year on formal training for 47. million workers, Xerox spent over $ 300 million on training its employees. Motorola provides all employees secretaries inclusive with fourty (40) hours training annually and the company has rededicated itself to the concept of life long training and planned to quadruple the 40 annual training hours from the year 2000. Hence education and training have been found out to be the key to develop the abilities of individuals to satisfy the current and future needs of the organizations. According to Rob Dransfield et. t (1996) training helps those being trained and also benefits the organizations they work for. Benefits to individuals include greater skills, more knowledge, more confidence and better prospects and to the organization, more productivity as in secretaries better quality work, more job satisfaction resulting to no absenteeism and greater ability to use latest technology and reduction in wastage of materials. Therefore organizations with a positive attitude to employee training minimize the cost of production and produce quality to out compete other organizations with negative attitudes.
Blundell and Murdock (1997) training can be defined as an activity designed to meet immediate skill needs of a person to perform work and educate is concerned with peoples broader training beyond their current work tasks and what is likely to be used in their work career. Therefore according to them training and education is to tackle performance deficiencies either current or anticipated. According to Bradely (1979) education and training are the major factors which affect the performance of workers (secretaries) because it improves on the mental ability of the workers.
Hence every secretary has to be trained to do his or her work. M. J. Boella (1992) there are three main components of training that an individual requires in order to do a job effectively and efficiently these are knowledge skills and attitude. Each of these can be developed or improved upon by effective training approach however each training component needs a different training approach. M. C. Challand (1995) in his research indicated that a strong need for achievement was related to how well individuals were motivated to perform their tasks.
He also found out that, this could be strengthened to some extent through training. Therefore, employers should be able to improve on motivation and performance of secretaries through appropriate training techniques. Secretaries should be motivated to go for further studies. According to G. A. Cola (1996) human resources are the most dynamic of all the organization resources they need considerable attention from the management, if they are to realize their full potential in their work. Thus training is one of the potential human resources which affect the performance of secretaries.
Narvin (1999) training and development programmes help to eliminate performance deficiencies in secretaries. This however applies when the deficiency is caused by lack of ability and skills than lack of other sources of motivation. The employees involved in the training and education must have the aptitude and motivation needed to learn to perform the job better. Training contributes to the secretary’s stability and become efficient after undergoing training. Saleemi and Bogonkio (1997) training is an activity which is organized to create changes in thinking and then behaviour of the people, and enable them improve on their performance.
They further say that training also helps improve the quality and quantity of work output. Therefore as a result productivity and performance of workers secretaries in particular and the organization is improved. Mills (1997) the only means of transforming a person to become more productive is through training. It is noticed that an employee in this case a secretary is transformed from what she or he wishes to do in the future time to come. He concludes that the only method the organization can attain future targets is to train its workers secretaries inclusive.
Organizations in favour of his idea have research and training centers in their premises purposely to train employees and make research on the loopholes existing. However others prefer training from outside the organizational premises which is expensive than training in the organization premises. “America 2000: An introduction strategy,” initiated by president George Bush, is a comprehensive plan to revitalize and reinvent America’s schools. One major element of this strategy is the work completed by a U. S.
Department of labour-appointed commonly known as the Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS). Advanced by the secretary labour SCANS was formed in Feb 1990 and consisted of thirty one (31) representatives from business, government, unions and schools. The commission was charged with the task of defining the know-how needed in the work place and of considering how this know-how is best assessed. Years ago business at the 62-bed room park Hotel in Liverpool was poor: profit had fallen to ? 60,000 and the occupancy was only 30%.
Ron Jones General Manager decided that the fundamental problem was lack of repeated training, and then went for the investors in people (IIP) award. Every member of staff had a personal development plan up and was given the training they required. By the time of receiving the IIP award in 1997 the hotel had already gained in many ways that is, labour turnover fell from 35% to 5%, profit was in excess of ? 500,000 on turnover which had doubled to ? 1,400,000. Thus education training are essential and “without a shadow of doubt the hotel was worth it”. . 3EFFECTS OF WORKING ENVIRONMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SECRETARIES Environment is the surrounding. It can be internal (employers, immediate managers, workmates, supervisors) external (suppliers, competitors, distributors, customers) and the physical (buildings, safety, office facilities, office location and accommodation) According to Oxford Advanced learners’ dictionary; Relationship is the way in which two people, groups or countries behave towards each other. Employer is a person or company that pays people to work for them.
Employee is a person who is paid to work for somebody or a company. Environment is the conditions that affect the behaviour and development of the physical conditions that exists in a pleasant working or learning environment. According to M C Gregor Theory X and Theory Y described in chapter 2 argued that people want to do good job and that work is as natural and healthy as a play. In Human Rights Act Article 8 creates a right to respect for private and family life, home and correspondence of employees secretaries inclusive.
Private life includes a right to respect for personal identity including sexual identity, sexual activities, moral, physical integrity and personal relations. The employees’ right is to respect in general. According to ERG Theory relatedness needs they pertain to the need for satisfactory relationships with others. All theories above emphasize friendly relationships as a source of good working environment and work prosperity. According to Graw-Hill (1983) most jobs in business today involve the need for the maintenance of security and confidentiality to a greater or lesser degree.
The extent to which security of a secretary is will depend partly on the size of the company. In large companies special personnel will be employed to manage the general security screening all visitors, checking all buildings after staff have left to ensure that no undesirable person or thing is hidden on the premises. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) it defines sexual harassments as un welcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature. In 1995 it processed more than 15,000 sexual harassment claims.
A significant case highlighting the sexual harassment issue was the 1986 case Meritor Savings Bank V. Vinson. The case stemmed from a situation where Vinson initially refused the sexual advances of her boss. Research shows that 90% of the Fortune 500 companies have dealt with sexual harassment complaints. More than 30% have sued at least once; about aquater (1/4) have been sued over and over again. In San Francisco, a female secretary receives $ 3. 5 million in a sexual harassment suit against the law of Baker and MC Kenzie.
In New York, Tiffany and Co is ordered to pay $ 360,000 to a former employee who claimed that she was sexually harassed and subsequently fired for complaining about the harassment. Sexual harassment law of 1991 has its roots in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII) it prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex. According to the 1994 survey by the society of Human Resource Management the number of employers receiving sexual harassment reports rose from 35. 2% in 1991 to 65. 1% in 1993. In Gaukrager (1986) the working environment for secretaries is said not to be so good which makes work un easy.
A secretary Lan was employed as an assistant by Jayne but this secretary was noted complaining of high volumes of work, noise of the telephone, constant interruptions from sales and computing staff, a photocopier sited in her office which was used by all staff therefore had no privacy and was interrupted by peoples (staff) movements secret spying of secretaries, un scheduled time tables of work and no allocation of specified number of people (staff) to be served, poor skills, complicated employers and un appreciating employers.
Because of much work and doing it repeatedly she developed arthritis in her back and could no longer work for a period of six month. According to Sandstorm (1980) environmental influences may influence secretary’s performance through arousal, fatigue, and over load. Arousal refers to a person’s general state of alertness of excitation both psychological and physiological. The effects of arousal on the performance of secretaries depend on whether the added stimulation brings the range of arousal optimal for the task. If so it may benefit performance with over arousal performance of a secretary may suffer
Strainer puts it that high arousal prompts people to produce behaviors that rank high in their response hierarchy. When correct reaction is learnt, high arousal facilitates performance but when the task requires responses that are new or poorly learnt, arousal has an inhibitory effect and this affects the performance. Stress refers to a form of physiological and psychological mobilization in response to perceive adverse demand, challenge or threat. Stress occurs when people see environmental conditions and threats to their continued wellbeing.
Stress causes arousal and possibly narrowing of attention, which may adversely affect performance of secretaries Sandstorm (1986). Fatigue is a consequence of muscular exertion. Fatigue may occur in the work environment that necessitates uncomfortable posture, strenuous movements or awkward procedures it may result from poorly designed equipments and may reduce a persons comfort and level of performance. Fatigue is a feeling of being extremely tired because of hard work or exercise. According to John Harrison (1996) a secretary needs a happy and trouble free environment without any noise to allow them concentrate on their work.
Secretaries must also guard against divulging confidential information, restrain from involving into gossip and wasting valuable time. Ventilation and lighting should be good that is good ventilation is needed to avoid the spread of diseases which affects the performance of secretaries. Poor lighting affects secretary’s performance because it leads to eyestrain. John Harrison (1996) said that secretaries are required to do the following in order to maintain healthy and safe conditions in the office. ?Keep their immediate work area free from hazards. Follow operating instructions for the use of equipment and fixtures. ?Use approved and safe methods for lifting heavy items. Effective suitable ventilation should be provided and temperature in the work rooms should be reasonable. Eddie Fowler and Paul gravels (1998) say best tools should be available for the job to be performed satisfactorily. These may be computers, stationery and others which may not necessarily mean the most new or expensive but careful study of what is available. The best tools and equipment, not only to obtain most efficient work but also commitment and seriousness of the secretary.
The working environment is more than physical working conditions. It includes the whole social and psychological atmosphere of the work place. This is significantly affected by the culture of the organization as a whole. Sultan Kermathy (1997) states that stress at work affects individual performance. Many organizations which have undergone transformation have fewer people than before and because these people are expected to maintain or even increase productivity the additional workload necessitates working longer hours and creates stressful situations in some circumstances hence affecting their performance.
Environmental Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970) regulate the degree to which employees (secretaries inclusive) can be exposed to hazardous substances and specifies the safety equipment that the employer must provide. Carol Cary forth, Maureen Rawlinson for the standards of 1995; a secretaries relationships with all the people you work with are extremely important for reasons like how you act and react to people will affect your own effectiveness and performance in the organization. Totally how you relate to people will affect their behaviour and what they are willing to do for you and what they are not.
Constructive relationships which involve recognize each others needs, work productively together, pull together and support each other when the going gets rough. However Hawthorne studies between 1927 and 1932 Elton mayo conducted experiments at Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company in Chicago with the objective to determine the effect off work environment on productivity and concluded that other human factors were responsible for performance. CHAPTER THREE 3. 0INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the research methodology which the researcher used in carrying out the study.
This includes Research design, Study population, Sampling design, Sample size, Study Variables, sources of data collection, Pre-testing Instruments of data collection, Procedure of data collection, Processing presentation and analysis and limitations of the study. 3. 1RESEARCH DESIGN The study focused on the factors affecting the performance of sectaries in Organisations that is government and private primary and secondary schools. The research was carried out in Masindi Town Council. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect data.
The research used descriptive and exploratory research designs based on results from questionnaire designed for collecting data. 3. 2STUDY POPULATION The researcher selected respondents from schools in Masindi Town Council; these were secretaries from different schools which were sampled out. 3. 3SAMPLE SIZE The researcher used 30 respondents from 30 schools which were sampled out from all schools in the town council that is only primary and secondary schools. Questionnaires were successfully returned as seen below; ?Private primary schools10 ?Private secondary schools9 Government primary schools6 ?Government secondary schools5 3. 4SAMPLING DESIGN The researcher used stratified Random Sampling and then simple random sampling techniques because ? The study targets specific groups of respondents that is respondents from private primary schools, private secondary schools, government primary schools and government secondary schools. ?The technique was not biased since it was taking into account significant strata levels of the respondents. 3. 5STUDY VARIABLES The variables under the study were categorized as independent, dependent and extraneous variables. . 5. 1INDEPENDENT VARIABLE The factors affecting the performance of secretaries like education and training, salaries and wages and the relationship between secretaries and their working environment were the independent variables in the study. The performance of secretaries depended on them and therefore they are the determinants. 3. 5. 2DEPENDENT VARIABLES Performance is the dependent variable. Performance was determined by the mentioned factors above and the performance varied according to the alteration and variation of these factors. 3. 5. 3EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES
These were the variables which affected the performance of secretaries other than the above mentioned independent factors. These included human nature and interest in the job. 3. 6SOURCES OF DATA The researcher used two types of data collection namely primary and secondary data collection. 3. 6. 1PRIMARY DATA Primary data was collected using questionnaires and interviews to those who preferred it. They were administered to the secretaries by the researcher. 3. 6. 2SECONDARY DATA Secondary data was obtained from books, journals, magazines, newspapers and other different texts from different authors. . 7DATA COLLECTION INSRUMENTS These were used to collect data inform of figures and attitudes. The instruments of data collection were questionnaires and interviews. AQuestionnaires The researcher used both open ended and close ended questionnaires to obtain information from respondents. Questionnaires were given to respondents who were guided on how to fill them by the instructions on the questionnaire. This instrument was used because ?it was not very expensive, ? respondents answered the questionnaires at their own convenience and pace, ? nd it reduced the bias since it was accompanied by a covering letter, AInterview This was an instrument of data collection where the researcher was asking questions while filling in the responses in the interview guide. This method was used to those who had no time for filling in the questionnaires. ?This method was used because it was cheap, ?it could not consume a lot of time ?answers could be instant ?it had no limitations and therefore all the information wanted could be obtained. 3. 8ADMINSTRATION OF INSTRUMENTS
The researcher pre-tested her instructions of data collection by designing questionnaires which were simple and unambiguous. The questionnaires were pretested in four (4) students of Bachelors of Administrative and Secretarial Science Evening group year three (BAS III) who were already working. The researcher administered the instruments herself where she would distribute the questionnaires to students and wait for them to be filled and collected immediately. 3. 9RESEARCH PROCEDURE This is a brief and concise description of steps which were used in the process of administering the research study.
The researcher obtained a letter of introduction from the Faculty Dean which introduced the researcher to seek permission to carry out the study from different schools sampled out. The researcher identified the sampled respondents from whom self administered questionnaires were distributed or interviewed for those who preferred interviewing. After filling, the questionnaires were collected from them and taken for further processing like data presentation and analysis. The process of data collection took a period of two weeks. 3. 10DATA PROCESSING AND PRESENTATION
Data was edited, coded and tabulated to ensure completeness of the questionnaires and discover any misunderstanding of the questions. Data was presented in tables showing frequencies and percentages. 3. 11DATA ANALYSIS All questionnaires were collected and coded. The findings were analysed using frequencies. Other than non but descriptive statistics such as table were used to analyse data collected. 3. 12LIMITATIONS TO THE STUDY The research had the following limitations. ?Time which was allocated to the whole process of research was not enough to cover all the study activities. Financial strains since all activities required funding which even delayed the completion of the research study. ?Some of the respondents were not willing to release their information, some had no time for both questionnaires and interviews, so there was much pleading and bribing in order to get the information from some respondents. CHAPTERFOUR 4. 0INTRODUCTION This chapter contains the presentation, interpretation and analysis of data collected. The study was specifically conducted to examine the factors affecting the performance of secretaries. . 1SCHOOL CODES For easy processing of data, the researcher used different codes for different strata / groups of schools from which respondents were obtained. The codes are as follows. Private Primary schoolsP1 Private Secondary schoolsP2 Government Primary schoolsG1 Government Secondary schoolsG2 4. 2OBJECTIVE ONE Was to examine whether wages and salaries affected the performance of secretaries. TABLE ONE: SHOWING WHETHER MONTHLY SALARY IS ADQUATE RESPONSESP1P2G1G2FREQUENCYPERCENTAGE YES111_310% NO98552790% TOTAL1096530100%
According to the table above determining whether monthly salary was adequate 10% of the respondents agreed that it is adequate and 90% did not agree and therefore were not contented with their monthly salary. TABLE TWO:SHOWING HOW WAGES AND SALARIES ARE DETERMINED RESPONSESP1P2G1G2FREQUENCYPERCENTAGE PIECE RATE_3__310% TIME RATE104652583% EDUCATION LEVEL_2__27% TOTAL1096530100% From the table above determination of wages and salaries deferred accordingly that is 10% were determined by piece rate, 83% by time rate and 7% by education level.
Therefore most secretaries’ wages and salaries were determined by time rate. TABLE THREE:SHOWING WHETHER WAGES AND SALARIES ARE THE ONLY REWARDS THAT ATTRACT SECRETARIES PERFORMANCE RESPONSESP1P2G1G2FREQUENCYPERCENTAGES YES97312067% NO12341033% TOTAL1096530100% From the table above 67% considered wages and salaries to be the only rewards attracting their performance while 33% did not consider only wages and salaries as the only rewards to attract their performance and suggested for others like recognition, allowances and delegation.
TABLE FOUR:SHOWING WHETHER WAGES AND SALARIES GIVEN TO SECRETARIES AFFECT THEIR PERFORMANCE RESPONSESP1P2G1G2FREQUENCYPERCENTAGE YES109452893% SOMETIMES__2_27% NO____00% TOTAL1096530100% From the table above 93% were totally affected and 7% were sometimes Affected and 0% or none was not affected by the wages and salaries given to them. Therefore wages and salaries affected the performance of secretaries. 4. 3OBJECTIVE TWO Was to find out the effects of education and training on the performance of secretaries. TABLE FIVE:SHOWING THE ACADEMIC QUALIFICATIONS OF SACRETARIES.
RESPONSES P1P2G1G2FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE P. 7 –S. 4__2_27% CERTIFICATE109442790% DIPLOMA___113% DEGREE____00% TOTAL1096530100% Table five shows that from 100% respondents 7% had qualifications of between Primary Seven and senior four dropouts minus any certificate, 90% had Certificates, 3% had Diplomas and 0% had degrees. Therefore most secretaries were certificate holders. TABLE SIX:SHOWING THE YEARS SECRETARIES HAVE SPENT AT THEIR PRESENT WORKING PLACES RESPONSESP1P2G1G2FREQUENCYPERCENTAGE 1 – 5 years68__1447% 5 – 10 years41431240% 10 – 15 years__22413% 15+ years____00% TOTAL1096530100%
From the table above 47% of the secretaries had worked at their present working Place for 0 -5 years, 40% from 5 – 10 years 13% from 10 -15 years and none had worked at the current or present place of work for more than 15 years. It is observed that in government schools secretaries can be retained or can work for longer time in terms of years than in private schools, evidenced by no one in private school had worked for more than 10 years at the same working place. TABLE SEVEN:SHOWING WHETHER SECRETARIES HAVE HAD TRAINING SINCE THEY JOINED THEIR WORKING PLACE. RESPONSESP1P2G1G2FREQUENCYPERCENTAGE YES_1_3413% NO108622687%
TOTAL1096530100% In the table above it is shown that from the total number of 30 sampled respondents 4 that is 13% had ever gone for further training and 26 that is 87% had never had any training. It also shows that government schools can cater for training than private. From the subsection question in the questionnaire, from the Four after training ? three found improvement in performance ? One had not seen any change yet. Those who had never had training; ?One (1) said has enough qualification, ? Fourteen (14) said they had no sponsor ?Seven (7) feared loosing their jobs and ?Eight (8) had their own opinions like;
And others advanced the following reasons ?they had no time, ?they were aged for further studies, ?they were tired of the field. 4. 4OBJECTIVE THREE Was to determine the extent to which relationships between secretaries and their working environment affected their performance. TABLE EIGHT:SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SECRETARIES AND THEIR EMPLOYERS RESPONSESP1P2G1G2FREQUENCYPERCENTAGE VERY GOOD11__27% GOOD77211756% FAIR2123827% POOR__21310% TOTAL1096530100% From the above table it is shown that 6% had very good relationships, 57% had good relationships 27% had fair relationships and 10% had poor relationships.
It was found out that secretaries in private schools have at least better relationships than secretaries in government schools. Section two of the question in the questionnaire shows that from a total number of eleven (11) respondents who had fair or poor relationships advanced the following reasons ?From seven (7) the employer was rude, arrogant and unapproachable. ?From three (3) the employer was harassing them sexually. ?And one (1) said the employer was not recognizing her as a learnt worker (employee) and had no respect for her.
TABLE NINE:SHOWING WHETHER EMPLOYERS RESPOND POSITIVELY TO SECRETARIES PROBLEMS. RESPONSESP1P2G1G2FREQUENCYPERCENTGE YES11__27% SOMETIMES98342480% NO__31413% TOTAL1096530100% The table above it is shown that most employers at least responded to their Secretaries problems that is 7% responded positively 80% sometimes responded positively and 13% were not responding to secretaries problems. TABLE TEN:SHOWING WHETHER EMPLOYERS ENCOURAGE CORDIAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SECRETARIES AND OTHER EMPLOYEES RESPONSESP1P2G1G2FREQUENCYPERCENTAGE YES53551860% SOMETIMES351_ 930% NO21__310% TOTAL1096530100%
The table above shows that out of 30 (100%) sampled respondents 18(60%) Encourage 9(30%) sometimes encourage and 3(10%) do not encourage relationships between secretaries and other employees. It is observed that relationships are more encouraged in government schools than in private Schools. Section ii of the question in the questionnaire, respondents who said sometimes and No advanced their ideas according to their understanding and the employers behaviors as; ?Working time may be wasted in socializing with other employees. ?School secrets may be revealed to employees who are friends. No one is to know another’s job description, qualification and salary earned and therefore no detailed discussion with others. It’s a rule never to talk to a fellow employee for more than five (5) minutes. TABLE ELEVEN:SHOWING WHTHER THERE IS ENOUGH LIGHT, FURNITURE AND VENTILATION IN SACRETARIES WORKING PLACES RESPONSESP1P2G1G2FREQUENCYPERCENTAGE YES2112620% AVERAGE77432170% NO111_310% TOTAL1096530100% As presented by the table out of 100%, 20% had enough, 70% had average and 10% did not have enough in terms of light, furniture and ventilation. TABLE TWELVE:SHOWING WHETHER WORKING PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AFFECTS SECRETARYS PERFORMANCE.
RESPONSES P1P2G1G2FREQUENCYPERCENTAGE YES79342377% SOME HOW3_21620% NO__1_13% TOTAL1096530100% According to the table above 77% of the respondents were affected by the Physical working environment, 20% were somehow affected and 3% were not affected by the physical environment. CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION, SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION 5. 0INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the findings, summary, recommendations and conclusion. It presents the discussion of the data which was collected by the researcher in finding out the factors affecting the performance of secretaries in organizations and to make recommendations.
The researcher can agree or disagree with the research hypotheses basing on the findings. 5. 1DISCUSSION Hypothesis one stated that wages and salaries do affect the performance of secretaries. From responses obtained from table one, it is established that most secretaries are not satisfied with their monthly salaries that is from 100% of the respondents 90% are not satisfied and consider it inadequate and only 10% consider their salary adequate which calls for increase in their monthly salaries in order to attract their performance.
In table two it is found out that 83% of wages and salaries are determined by time worked. Secretaries are seen to have much work and therefore paying them by time rate may not much work and therefore paying them by time rate may not pay or match with the work they perform hence they be reluctant and do less waiting for their time. Table three showed that 67% of the secretaries consider wages and salaries as the only rewards which attract their performance and 33% do not agree to that and suggest others like allowances.
And table four basing on the research carried out 93% of the respondents said that salaries and wages given to them do affect their performance and only 7% are affected sometimes and none is not affected. 67% considered wages and salaries as the only rewards to attract their performance. This indicates that a large number of secretaries are attracted by wages and salaries to perform their work and that is why 90% said that the rewards given to them affect their work.
Therefore according to the research carried out, wages and salaries do affect the performance of secretaries. According to other scholars like Victor Vroom (Expectancy theory) people’s behaviour is affected by how their work is related to rewards, Daft states that the wage and salary structure is an important part of the compensation package that maintains a productive work force and by Heinemann, salaries and wages is a way of compensating, rewarding of employees for their performance.
In the real world, no one wants to work for unpaid labour even in charity organizations like some Non Governmental Organizations, workers (secretaries) are paid, in churches there is payment and if its not done cases of embezzlement, theft or poor performance or resignation may come up. Therefore from the above sources of data the performance of secretaries to a large extent is affected by wages and salaries which disapprove the already set hypotheses. Hypothesis two was that the performance of secretaries depends on the level of education and training.
According to the research carried out, it is found out that most of the secretaries are not highly learnt, that is 7% have no any secretarial qualifications, 90% have certificates and only 3% have diploma qualifications. In table six, 13% have had on the job training and 87% have not had any and advance several reasons for their failure. However from the 13% who have had training, 10% of them found improvement in performance while 3% found it the same minus any changes and those on diploma level see no reason for training since they can perform very well.
From secondary data, that is other scholars like Narvin (1999) training and development programs help to eliminate performance deficiencies in secretaries. Saleemi (1997) training is an activity which creates changes in thinking and then behaviour of the people and enable them improve on their performance. Ian Marcouse, Andrew Gillespie, Barry Martin,Malcom Surrdge, Nancy wall, training is to develop a knowledgeable and committed work force to deliver high quality products or services. Bradley (1979), education and training are the major factors which affect the performance of workers (secretaries).
Life long learning is a consented effort to invest continuously in the collective talents of people. President Clinton’s campaign pledge was to “require every employer to spend 1. 5% of the pay roll for continuing education and training” for all workers. Without knowledge and skills to carry out a task, there is no work done or performance. So there is need for education to acquire the skills and knowledge to perform. With the inversion of new technology like use of computers and others which are coming up, there is need for constant training in order to be well equipped with all skills.
Therefore with the views from different scholars and respondents, the hypothesis that education and training affects the performance of secretaries is proved worth and therefore the lower the level of education and training, the more the poor performance and vice versa. Hypothesis three put it that the relationship between secretaries and their working environment affects their performance. From the data presented in tables, the relationship between secretaries and the working environment is averagely good.
However, good relationships are more common in private schools than in government schools. Table nine shows that most employers respond to their secretary’s problems having a total percentage of 87% that is 7% ever respond and 80% sometimes respond, still high responses in private schools. Concerning secretaries being encouraged to have cordial relationships with other employees averagely employers allow, represented by 90% and 10% for those who totally do not encourage cordial relationships between other employees and their secretaries.
Many of the secretaries who are not allowed such relationships are seen in private schools because they aim at performing higher to match the competition and win the market therefore do not want their secrets to be released out to competitors and working time to be spent in socializing with others. Table twelve shows the extent to which the physical working environment affects secretaries’ performance and 77% is affected, 20% is sometimes affected and 3% is not affected. This is according to the data collected since it is 97% out of 100% then it is considered to be affecting the secretaries’ erformance. Scholars like Sandstorm (1980) say environmental influences affect secretaries’ performance through fatigue, arousal and over load. Eddie Fowler and Paul Gravels (1998) say best tools should be available for the job to be performed satisfactorily. John Harrison (1996) secretaries need a happy and trouble free environment without any noise to allow them concentrate on their work. The ERG theory relatedness needs, they pertain to the need for satisfactory relationships with others.
At working places there is need for interactions and coordination between different work mates and people, to share ideas. This avoids boredom and loneliness. In any working place no one works alone minus the efforts of others like a secretary needs the efforts of the employer, other employees, customers, students, parents, suppliers and others. More so a secretary is taken as a public relations officer. The above mentioned efforts can not be shared minus good relationships with others. Thus the working environment relationships, affecting the performance of secretaries.
That is why most secretaries who are harshly treated and have no good working environment or relationships revenge on others like other employees, visitors customers, suppliers and others which gives a poor reputation of the school. However Elton Mayor’s research of 1927 and 1932 in Chicago shows that there are other human factors which affect the performance of secretaries in organizations other than the working environment relationships. The research was carried out too early before employees’ rights were improved and when the world had not yet fully modernized.
One scholar who studied longtime ago can not disapprove the many scholars of the time. From the vivid primary data which shows 77% are affected by the working environment, Elton Mayor’s research stands to be disapproved. This is concluded that the hypothesis which stated those relationships between secretaries and their working environment affect their performance is true. 5. 2SUMMARY The following were the findings from the study. ?All respondents were secretaries. ?Majority of the respondents were certificate holders. Most secretaries had worked at their present working places for years ranging from 1-10. ?Many of the respondents had never had any on-the-job training or any further education. ?Many of those who had training had improved in their performance. ?Monthly salary was inadequate to majority of the respondents. ?Wages and salaries were mainly the rewards which attracted the secretaries’ performance. ?Wages and salaries were considered not enough. ?The relationship between secretaries and their working environment was good. ?The working environment to a large extent affected the performance of secretaries. . 3CONCLUSION From the data collected, it is important to know that factors which affect secretaries have either a negative or a positive impact on their performance. Hence there is need for the problem to be addressed. From the discussion above, it can be concluded that factors like wages and salaries, education and training and the relationship between secretaries and their working environment do affect their performance in organizations; Government and Private aided primary and secondary schools in Masindi Town Council in particular. 5. 4RECOMMENDATION
In view of the facts obtained from the study, factors affecting the performance of secretaries do as well affect the performance of the organization as a whole, since they are the central workers. The nature of the secretary reputes the nature of the organization. A poor secretary earns the organization (school) a poor reputation while a good secretary earns the organization (school) a good reputation. Therefore if the factors which have been under the study were or are neglected, organizational performance could be in a mess. It is from this that the researcher suggests; ?
Secretaries should be paid like other workers in organizations (schools) without discriminating them since they also do a lot of work for the progress of the school. ?Secretaries with enough skills and qualification should be recruited and they should also be considered for on-job or off-the-job training when an opportunity comes. ?Working relationships should at all times be good amongst all workers and their employers. ?Organizations should purchase office necessities like furniture, cupboards, computers, printers and files etc to facilitate secretaries’ work and performance. . 5AREA OF FURTHER RESEARCH The researcher suggests that more research should be carried out on this topic emphasizing other factors like human nature, interest in the job and family background which are sighted to be affecting the performance of secretaries as well. Alternatively could consider the same objectives but in different organizations other than schools. REFERANCES 1 Richard L. Daft (1996) Management 4th edition 2James H. Donnelly Jr. James, l. Gibson, John m. ivancevich; Fundamentals of management 10th edition Stephen P. Robbins; Management today 4 Helein Harding 1988 office organization and secretarial procedures 5 Mullins (1990); management tasks responsibilities and practices 6 V Room and victor (1994); work and motivation 7 R. Dransfield, s Hawkins F. Hudson. W. Davies (1996); human Resource management for higher Awards Heinemann. 8Robert Kreitner (1998); Management 7th Edition 9 John Harrison (1997) Secretarial Duties 10th Edition. 10 Desiree Cox (1989); An Introduction to Office Management for secretaries. 1 Joanna Gaukrager 1986 ;Case study Assignment in secretarial procedures 12 Michael Armstrong 8th edition 2001;A hand book of Human Resource Management Practice 13 Len Holden 2nd Edition 2001; Human Resource Management – A Contemporary Perspective 14 Pattie Odgers Strategies for the 21 centaury Administrative Office Management 15. Carol Cary forth, Maureen Rawlinson for the 1995 standards NVQ level 3 Administration 2nd edition APPENDIX ONE KYAMBOGO UNIVERSITY P O. BOX 1 KYAMBOGO QUESTIONNAIRES TO SECRETARIES
The purpose of this questionnaire is to attempt to collect data which will help secretaries and employers to know the factors affecting the performance of secretaries in schools, that is, government and private aided secondary and primary schools , Masindi Town Council in particular. The information given will be kept confidential and strictly for academic purposes and therefore it will not be in any way used against you. Please specify in the spaces provided or tick on the response of your choice amongst the alternatives given, according to your independent opinion. 1.
Do you consider your monthly salary adequate? a. Yes b. No 2. How are wages and salaries determined? a. Piece rate b. Time rate c. Education level 3. Are wages and salaries the only rewards that attract your performance? a. Yesb. No ii. If No in question 3 above what are other rewards? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4. Do the wages and salaries given to you affect your performance? a. Yes b. sometimes c. No 5. What is your highest academic qualification? a. P. 7 – S. b. Certificate c. Diploma d. Degree 6. For how long have worked in this place? a. 0 – 5 yearsb. 5 – 10 years c. 10 – 12 years d. above 15 7i. Since you joined your (this) place of work have you ever had any training? a. Yes b. No ii. If yes in question 7i above do you see any performance improvement? a. I hold enough qualification b. I fear loosing my job c. I have no sponsor d. Any other specify……………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………… 8i. What is the relationship between you and your employer? . Very good b. Good c. Fair d. Poor ii. If poor and fair in question 8 above why is it so? ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 9i. Does your employer respond positively to your problems? a. Yes b. Some times c. No ii. If sometimes or No in question 9i above why do you think so? …………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 10. Does your employer encourage Cordial relationships between you and other employees? . Yes b. Sometimes c. No 11. Do you have enough light, furniture and ventilation? a. Yes c. Average c. No 12. Does your working physical environment affect your performance? a. Yes d. Sometimes c. No ABSTRACT The study was concerned with the factors affecting the performance of secretaries in organizations and a case study of private and government aided primary and secondary schools in Masindi Town Council.
Secretaries are sole sources of organizational success however they are seen not to perform as expected. ?The objectives of the study were To examine whether wages and salaries affect the performance, to find out the effects of education and training on the performance and to determine the extent to which the relationship between secretaries and their working environment affect their performance. Review of the related literature was made to carry out the study successfully. Descriptive research design and stratified random sampling and sample size of 30 respondents was used.
Data was obtained from both primary and secondary sources, questionnaires and interview as instruments of data collection, data was presented in tables of frequency and percentages. It was concluded that the factors sighted as objectives affected the performance of secretaries and the researcher made the following recommendations; equal pay for all employees according to the level of responsibility and work done, secretaries be taken for further training and only employ those with enough skills and qualifications, working relations be encouraged at all levels, physical working environment be improved and equipment be purchased.
CHAPTER ONE 1. 0INTRODUCTION This chapter is an introduction to research, which presented the background to the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, hypotheses, area and scope of the study, significance of the study and definition of terms. 1. 1BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Secretaries are one of the most vital workers in organizations hence playing a very great role in the smooth flow of organizational work.
A fully qualified and equipped secretary takes shorthand dictation, transcribes it on the typewriter or computer, supervises, serves as a link between top management and their juniors, acts in the absence of the employer, organizes meetings, agenda, sitting arrangements, takes minutes, they act as a centre of communication according to White Head (1985) by receiving and sending memos, letters, telephone calls, carries out filing system, arrange travel appointments for the employer, keeps secrets of the employer and the organization and ensures that work delegated to her is finished in time.
A secretary has to report at the workplace before the employer and arrange the office. Thelma J. Foster (1994) a secretary saves her employers time. FW Taylor puts it that, people are only motivated by money and rewards. Lawler and Victor Vroom (Expectancy theory) people’s behaviour is affected by how their work is related to their rewards. According to Richard L. Daft (1996) the wage and salary structure is an important part of the compensation package that maintains a productive workforce and equally important are the benefits offered by the organization.
A US chamber of Commerce Survey has revealed that benefits in general compose more than 1/3 of labour costs and in some industries nearly 2/3. As a result of little motivation in terms of rewards secretaries some times are absent in their offices, not minding on their jobs and resorting to other productive businesses for survival which affects their performance. An important element of secretary’s success and value lays in the skills that is interpersonal and managerial skills which enhances organizations reputation.
Western worlds’ organizations practice on-the-job-training (OJT). In 1987 IBM spent more than $750 million on training its employees secretaries inclusive. Great Plains software of Fargo, North Dakota, replaced one-day orientation with an intense three-month training program. Secretaries are currently pursuing education at higher levels of learning which is making employers delegate them work as a source of motivation. However some Organizations still neglect training secretaries’ in spite of the new technology.
Secretaries must have good relationships with their working environment that is internal environment consisting of employers, other workmates, external environment which includes suppliers, customers, competitors and the physical environment including office location and accommodation and the surrounding. In their endeavor to maintain such relationships they have been seen face a number of problems. According to the acquired need theory there is need for affiliation that is the desire to form close personal relationships, avoid conflicts and establish worm relationships.
At work are mature, adults who are independent, have deep interests, and behave in many complex ways (Chris Argris). A survey on Human Rights Management in the complaint to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) 1995 found out that 84% of them dealt with sexual harassment complaints with the biggest percentage being secretaries. This has led to secretaries revenging on customers and visitors by treating them harshly like bullying which causes stress “bad bosses” hotline in December 1997 38% of the callers complained of bullying whenever the secretary’s employers could not be around which is a poor reputation of the organization. . 2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Secretaries are very important in the success and performance of an organization and therefore they are expected to perform well in all organizations they work in. Unfortunately some of the organizations and secretaries have failed to achieve better results. There are still low levels of productivity, lack of commitment to work, absenteeism on the side of secretaries and undermining secretaries by paying them low salaries compared to their work, treating them as low ranked people, few opportunities for training on the side of employers.
It is from this dilemma that the researcher decided to carry out a research on the Factors Affecting the Performance of Secretaries who are taken to be the Sole source of organizations’ success. 1. 3PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of the study was to fi