Tesco Change Management Assignment

Tesco Change Management Assignment Words: 4940

LSC TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT IN INFORMATION AGE CHANGE MANAGEMENT TESCO SELF CHECK OUT MACHINES S. SAEED Table of Contents Executive Summery 1. 0 UK RETAIL I DUSTRY 1. 1 TESCO 1. 1a Tesco’s Competitors 1. 1b SELF CHECK OUT MACHINES 2. 0 CHA GE MA AGEME T 3. 0 Types of Organizational Change 3. 1a Incremental change 3. 1b Transformational change 3. 1c Strategic change 4. 0 TRIGGERS OF CHA GE 4. 1a Internal triggers 4. 1b External triggers 5. 0 PLA I G & MA AGI G CHA GE 5. 1a Force Field Model 5. 1b Continuous Change Process Model 5. 1c Emergent Approach 5. 1d Kotter’s Model 6. 0 RESISTA CE TO CHA GE: 6. 1 Causes of Resistance 6. a Low Tolerance to change 6. 1b Employee Resistance to change 6. 1c The Shock of the new 7. 0 ORGA ISATIO AL A AYSIS 7. 1a Threat of new entrants 7. 1b Power of Suppliers 7. 1c Power of Buyers 7. 1d Threat of Substitutes 7. 1e Rivalry 7. 2 SWOT Analysis 7. 2a Strengths 7. 2b Weaknesses 7. 2c Opportunities 7. 2d Threats 8. 0 What Caused the Change in Tesco 8. 1a Creation of Value for Customer 8. 1b Growing customer base 8. 1c Technological Innovation 8. 1d Competition 8. 1e Cost of Labour 8. 2 Type of Change 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 23 . 2a The Process 9. 0 Benefits of Self Check out in Tesco 9. 1a Increase in Sales 9. 1b Cost Effectiveness 9. 1c Customer Satisfaction 10. 0 Conclusion 11. 0 Recommendation References Appendix 14 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 20 24 Executive Summary The UK Retail Industry is the largest and most competitive industry. Tesco is an international retailer and the leading supermarket in the UK. It controls 31. 6% of the UK’s market share. Its main rivals are ASDA, Sainsbury’s and Morrison’s. In every organization there are macro and micro environmental factors that influence its decisions and operations.

SWOT, PEST and Porters five forces are used to analyse the industry to gain competitive advantage. Tesco differentiated itself by introducing Self checkout in 2003 in its Dereham, Norfolk store. The success of the self checkout trial in Dereham store led to its implementation in other Tesco outlets. This work seeks to explore the self checkout system in Tesco and its impacts on the organization. A manager at a Tesco store in Essex was interviewed on the self checkout system to determine the reasons for the change, how it took place and the benefits to the organization.

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The manager purports that the self checkout has added value to the organization. It has enhanced the customer shopping experience by speeding up processes. The self checkout has helped to reduce queues at the checkouts and also boosted sales in the UK. In the UK alone, 25% of Tesco transactions can be accounted for by the self checkout. Inspite of the few challenges facing the self checkout which include minors using the self checkout to purchase alcohol, the self checkout has been successful to the organization. 1 1. 0 UK RETAIL I DUSTRY

The retail industry in the UK is the most competitive and fast growing one. By the end of 2008, 11% of all VAT registered businesses in the UK were retailers, with the total number currently at 180,875. UK retail sector generate almost 8% of the GDP, accounting for one-fifth of the UK economy. Retail industry employs 11% of the total UK workforce. Total combine sales of this sector in UK were ? 265 billion in 2007, larger than the combined economies of Denmark and Portugal. 1. 1 TESCO Tesco is the UK’s largest retail chain and has outlet in every post code of the country with 2,115 stores and 280,000 staff.

Internationally it is the third biggest chain in the world, employing 440,000 people in 4,000 stores across 14 countries. Tesco operates its retail outlets business operation in six formats namely; Express (961 stores) Extra (177 stores), Metro (174 stores), Superstore (448 stores), Homeplus (10 stores) and OneShop (512 stores). Tesco. com is the online arm of the business operations to facilitate the delivery of products, mainly grocery, to customer’s door step. Tesco direct is online shopping mall for non-food items. 1. 1a Tesco’s Competitors

Tesco overtook Sainsbury’s as biggest UK supermarket 14 years ago. Tesco’s main operation is sales of grocery and household appliances. Four major retail supermarket chains in UK have following market share as of August 2008. 2 Supermarket Tesco Asda Sainsbury’s Morrisons Consumer Spend (? 000s) 6,351,531 3,410,431 3,175,543 2,233,137 Market Share August 2008 31. 6% 17. 0% 15. 9% 11. 1% +/- from July 2008 ^ 0. 3% ^ 0. 1% ^ 0. 1% ? 0. 2% Source: TNS-Worldpanel 1. 1b SELF CHECK OUT MACHI ES The focus of this assignment is to investigate the self checkout machine in Tesco.

This introduction of the self checkout was a strategic change. It was first introduced in Dereham, Norfolk in 2003. The purpose of the self checkout was to accelerate the check out processes and reduce labour cost associated with point of sales. This work will further explore the triggers of the change, the process involved and the benefits to the organisation. A diagram of the self check out can be seen in the appendix. 3 2. 0 CHA GE MA AGEME T Change management is the study of why organisations need to change, how change affects, how to response to changes in the environment.

All stakeholders of change play a full role in the successful implementation of change management. Routines associated with effective change management are: 1. Establish a clear change management strategy at top level and communicate this shared vision to rest of the organisation. 2. Communication is the most effective key to successful implementation. 3. Managers often resist the idea of participation to reach a decision during early involvement. There are two important benefits for allowing participation to take place as early as possible in the change process.

Without this even if attempts are made to consult or to inform, people will not develop a sense of ‘ownership’ of the project or commitment. 4. Creation of an open climate to express individual anxiety and concerns and the use of positive effects of ideas and knowledge held within the organisation. 5. With major change programmes it is especially important to set clear targets for which people can aim. 6. Successful organisational change depends on viewing training far more as an investment in developing not only specific skills but also in creating an alternative type of organisation. . 0 TYPES OF ORGA IZATIO AL CHA GE: There are many different ways of categorising organisational change, Understanding the nature of the change an organization wish to undertake is important in determining 4 an appropriate strategy. The following are some types of organizational changes: 3. 1a Incremental change Incremental change may be major and highly significant change but is gradual and repetitive. Incremental change may stop employee resistance. 3. 1b Transformational change Transformational change usually helps an organization regain strategic alignment with its environment.

If an organization loses touch with its shifting marketplace, more fundamental transformational change may be needed for survival. 3. 1c Strategic change Strategic change deals with broad, long term and organization-wide issues. The capacity of the firm to identify and understand the competitive forces in play and how they change over time, linked to the competence of a business to mobilize and manage the resources necessary for the chosen competitive response through time. (Pettigrew & Whipp; 1991) 4. 0 4. 1a TRIGGERS OF CHA GE Internal Triggers

The triggers for change in a rational organisation may be the continuing search for efficiency. Alternatively they might arise as a result of: • Ratio monitoring as a result of external bench marking exercises Tensions that exist especially at senior levels within the organisation Where employee – management conflicts is rife • • Within the organisation, the systems approach emphasise the importance of the inter relationships between the key internal sub systems, namely: 5 • • • • • Tasks Technology People Structure Management

It follows that change in response to internal triggers might adjust to the sub systems. 4. 1b External triggers Change is often necessary because of external developments. It is clear that there are a number of external factors that organisations must come to terms with. These include the implication of a global market place, a wider recognition of environmental issues, health awareness and demographic change (Paton & McCalman; 2007). The far or general environment of an organisation can be usually characterised under a ‘PESTLE’ framework: • Political implications of a new government.

Economic changes such as exchange rates, level of macro economic activity and global competition. • • Social or demographic changes such as levels of education and changing values/ expectations. • Technological changes such as inventions and developments, in both products and process. • Legal implications of likely government policies. Environmental implications of legislation, agreements of widely held values. PLA I G & MA AGI G CHA GE • 5. 0 An organization must try to anticipate change. The planning and the management of organizational change must become part of the organizations strategy. . 1a Force Field Model In accordance with Lewin’s Force field model this equilibrium must be disturbed in a planned way in order to bring about change. This is done by strengthening the forces 6 to change or weakening the forces against change. Lewin postulates a model that consists of the following: • • • Unfreeze – the process that awakens a system to the need for change Change — developing new responses based on new information. 1 Refreeze – stabilizing the change by introducing the new responses into the personalities of those concerned 5. 1b Continuous Change Process Model

A model of managing change is called the continuous change process model. This model states that top leaders are influential in articulating the company’s vision and setting the agenda for major change. The changes which are crucial in the realization of corporate objective are to discuss with employees the alternatives available and what the outcome is likely to be. (Bhuiyan et al, 2006; & Kotter; 1995 5. 1c Emergent Approach Management plays an important part in managing change. According to Tsoukas & Chia, (2002), “This view is encapsulated in the ’emergent approach’ to managing change”.

It is agreed that there is scope for initiating and implementing change from the bottom up rather than from top down. (Sminia & Van Nistelrooij; 2006) 5. 1d Kotter’s Model In Kotter’s model of change process, there are eight stages that can be used to successfully implement a change. (Kotter & Cohen; 2002). The stages are following: 1. Establish a sense of urgency 2. Establish a coalition 3. Create a vision and strategy for change 4. Communicate the vision and strategy through a combination of words, deeds, and symbols 7 5. Remove obstacle 6. Produce visible signs of progress in the form of short-term victories 7.

Stick to change process and refuse to give up when condition get tough 8. Nurture and shape a new culture to support the improvements and innovations that are taking root 6. 0 RESISTA CE TO CHA GE: In today’s economy, change is all-pervasive in organizations. It happens continuously, and often at rapid speed. Because change has become an everyday part of organizational dynamics, employees who resist change can actually cripple an organization. People do not change overnight. They take time to adjust to changes and adapt new behavioural and work-related patterns. Buchanan and Badham; 1999) Resistance is an inevitable response to any major change. Individuals naturally rush to defend the status quo if they feel their security or status is threatened. Folger & Skarlicki (1999) claim that “organizational change can generate scepticism and resistance in employees, making it sometimes difficult or impossible to implement organisational improvements” (Folger & Skarlicki; 1999, page 25) 6. 1 Causes of Resistance Symptoms are the specific behaviours that an individual exhibit when they are resistant to change.

According to Bhutan (1995), it is important to distinguish between the symptoms of resistance to change, and the causes behind it. These behaviours fall into two categories–active resistant or passive resistant. 6. 1a Low tolerance to change: Low tolerance for change is defined as the fear that one will not be able to develop new skills and behaviours that are required in a new work setting. According to Kotter & Schlesinger (1979), if an employee has a low tolerance for change, the increased ambiguity that arises as a result of having to perform their job differently would likely cause a resistance to the new way of doing things. 6. 1b Employee resist change: Employees resist change because they have to learn something new. In many cases there is not a disagreement with the benefits of the new process, but rather a fear of the unknown future and about their ability to adapt to it. 6. 1c The shock of the new: People are suspicious of anything which they perceive will upset their established routines, methods of working or conditions of employment. They do not want to lose the security of what is familiar to them. Armstrong, M. (2006), A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, (10th edn), Kogan Page, London, pages 25, 345, 346

Employee resistance to change is a complex issue facing management in the complex and ever-evolving organization of today. The process of change is ubiquitous, and employee resistance has been identified as a critically important contributor to the failure of many well-intend and well-conceived efforts to initiate change within the organization 7. 0 ORGA IZATIO AL A ALYSIS Porter’s five forces analysis are the external factors impacting on a company. Porters Diamond suggest that some companies in an industry are more competitive that others.

It was designed to show the attractiveness of an industry hence spotting the where competition is at its most in an industry. Tesco has the most market share in the retail industry hence uses Porter’s five forces to its advantage to deter others from taking market share from it. Fig 1 below illustrates the Porter’s five forces. 9 Figure 1 7. 1a Threat of ew Entrants: The UK retailers market is controlled by few competitors, including Tesco, Asda, and Sainsbury’s that possess a market share of 70% and small chains such as Somerfield, Waitrose with a further 10%.

The more attractive an industry is the higher the percentage of new entrants. In the case of retail industry, the high profits makes it more attractive for others to enter but are deterred by the low price wars that take place within the industry. This makes it impossible for new entrant into the market as the exit barrier is high as well. 7. 1b Power of Suppliers: Every industry has got suppliers for their raw materials. The power of the suppliers in the retail industry lies with the retailers. The retailers are able to dictate low prices at which they get their raw materials making them lso sell it at reasonable and profitable prices. Suppliers are not able to exert that much influence as there are other suppliers that can easily supply into the industry. The power of suppliers is influenced by the individual chains and their potential loss of business with the retailers. Therefore, Tesco being a market leader are able to negotiate better prices from suppliers than their competitors. 10 7. 1c Power of Buyers: The power of buyer in the retail industry lies with the buyers. This is because they have the power and resources to switch to other competitors who have better price value.

This is as a result of other substitute that can offer the same value for money. There is a low switching cost that is incurred by buyers in the retail industry as they are more price sensitive than brand loyal. This has resulted in them having more power in the retail industry. 7. 1d Threat of Substitutes: Substitutes according to Porter’s five forces are the products that can be found in another industry and does provide the same sort of needs. If the consumer can easily have alternatives to their needs without compromising much, they will be willing to take it.

In the case of the retail industry, substitutes to Tesco are not only the big retail giants like ASDA and Sainsbury but also corner shops, market stalls, butchers among others. The easy availability of substitutes does result in price based wars making the consumer benefit from low prices. 7. 1e Rivalry: Firms in an industry compete against each other to gain competitive advantage. Price wars are often resorted to when there is low product differentiation in an industry. Because Tesco, ASDA and Sainsbury do not have huge product differentiation other incentives like clubcards are used to gain advantage and attract consumers.

Because of the high exit barrier in the retail industry, firms would rather stay in and compete than abandon the industry if they are not doing well. The intensity of the rivalry resorted in Tesco introducing its first self checkout in its stores to improve services to consumers. 11 7. 2 7. 2a SWOT A ALYSIS OF TESCO Strengths Tesco holds a 31. 6% share of the UK retail market and it is the UK’s leading retailer. It provides insurance services and Club-card which enables customers to earn points when they shop from Tesco. Tesco also provides banking services.

Tesco has the world’s biggest online supermarket. It produces its own brand of products which is of good quality. In terms of location, they are more assessable as they have Tesco Extra, Superstores, Express and Metro. Tesco has also expanded to many parts of the World increasing its customer base. 7. 2b Weaknesses Tesco has a huge reliance on the UK for its success. This is unsafe as a weakness in the UK market will greatly affect its operations. amounts of profit that is dependent on UK market. Tesco expansion is so aggressive resulting in little free cash for any other operations. 7. c Opportunities The expansion of Tesco into other markets like the European countries, Asia continent and America has opened up better avenues for the company in terms of trade barriers and international market. This will allow Tesco to trade across continents easily. Tesco has recently ventures into markets such as phone (mobile and landline) and internet shopping. It was the first retailer to introduce internet shopping to its consumers. 7. 2d Threats Entering new markets with a new brand requires heavy investment and marketing, land prices and extra distribution and operation expense.

Tesco’s debt may increase before it begins to decline. If the new market is not receptive of Tesco’s values, it will not be profitable in its new venture. The potential of ASDA and Sainsbury in the industry to lower prices and compete in price war threatens the existence of Tesco. 12 8. 0 WHAT CAUSED THE CHA GE I TESCO In the 1990’s Tesco was a mid size retail market in the UK. Over the years Tesco has been able to apply its strategies effectively and efficiently to become one of the big global retailers in the world. The main triggers will be discussed below: 8. 1a Creation of Value for customer

As part of Tesco strategy to retain existing customers and attract new ones, the company decided to create more value for its customers. This resulted in the implementation of the self checkout. Tesco wanted to make the shopping experience exciting for the customers. 8. 1b Growing Customer Base The success of Tesco can be attributed to numerous factors one of which is its fast growing customer base. The self checkout was implemented to ease congestion on checkouts. With the implementation of the self checkout customers do not have to stand in long boring queues to pay for their shopping.

They can use the self checkout which is simple and faster especially if the customer has purchased only a few items. 8. 1c Technological Innovations In view of the growing age of technology, it is essential for all organizations to enhance their technologies if they want to be successful. Tesco implemented the self checkout to improve upon its operational efficiency. 8. 1d Competition Competition among organizations is one of the common triggers of change in most industries. Tesco implemented the self checkout system to gain a competitive advantage against its competitors.

This also led to differentiation in the market as Tesco distinguished itself from the other retailers by the use of the self checkout system. 13 8. 1e Cost of labour One of the major aims of every business is to maximize profit. Tesco wanted to increase its operational capacity at the front end and at the same time save cost hence the use of the self checkout. For instance instead of employing five cashiers to operate five cashier checkout, only one cashier will be required to assist customers on five self checkouts. These factors contributed immensely to the change management in Tesco. . 2 TYPE OF CHA GE The implementation of the Tesco self checkout systems could be said to be a strategic change. This is because the self checkout is a new system which differs from the normal checkout in terms of the way transactions are carried out. The cashier checkout requires a cashier to operate but the self checkout does not require a cashier. The self checkout brings a new procedure or method of serving customers. The use of the self checkout and the normal checkout give the customers an enhanced service without having to spend so much time in the store.

The self checkout when introduced in Tesco was to help improve upon the customers shopping experience and also to make the shopping very easy. This was done to make the customers feel a part of Tesco. The customer in store will select the shopping from the shelves and move to the self checkout, scan and pay for the items. The intended effect is the synergy of both the self checkout and the cashier checkout. 8. 2a The Process Effective planning is imperative in any organization if it is going to be successful in its activities.

The management of Tesco had to decide on the number of self checkout they were going to begin with and in which of their stores they would be introduced first. 14 The checkout leaders were trained to operate the self checkout as they would be assisting the customers to use the new system although the self checkout has a screen demo which makes the system user friendly and easy to understand and operate. Some cashiers thought that the self checkout was going to put them out of their jobs as automation of a system normally leads to the elimination of the manual aspect of the system and this made them insecure with their jobs.

The managers had to educate the cashiers on the purpose of the self checkout and the potential benefits it was going to bring to both customers and the organization as a whole. The purpose was to motivate the cashiers to be confident and welcome the change. The initial implementation was a form of feasibility studies. The customers were encouraged to use the self checkout with the assistance of the trained front end leaders. Management observed the system for a period of time to determine the number of customers that patronized it and also to get feedback from both the customers and staffs.

The positive feedback gave management the green light to introduce the self checkout in other Tesco outlets. 9. 0 BE EFITS OF SELF CHECKOUT I TESCO This change management process (implementation of the self checkout) has had an immense effect on the entire Organization as it serves a major role in the customer shopping experience and also impact positively on the sales of Tesco as an organization. The major benefits of the self checkout will be discussed below. 9. 1a Increase in Sales In this marketing era where the customer is the focus of most companies, customers will always go to shops where they can get a good and timely service.

Tesco being one of the world’s leading international retailers currently has 3000 self checkouts in 750 stores. This is a great improvement since the self checkout was first implemented. The number of self checkouts in stores attracts more new customers as they know 15 they can always leave the store in time through the use of the self checkout. This increases customer base which impacts positively on sales. 25% of Tesco’s UK transactions are through self checkout (Tesco Plc). This means that a quarter of UK Tesco sales can be accounted for by the use of the self checkout systems. This is represented in the pie chart below as blue.

Fig 2: Percentage of sales by self checkout and cashier checkout Note: 1- Sales through self checkout (25%) 2- Sales through cashier’s checkout (75%) 9. 1b Cost Effectiveness This is an important factor to consider when planning any change management process in any organization. According to Tesco’s annual statement 2005, the self checkout was introduced into 130 stores and over 850,000 customers use them every week. The use of the self checkout helps to save on labour cost as a number of the self checkout systems could be operated without the need for a corresponding number of cashiers.

The self checkout can compensate for the shortage of staff. However a trained supervisor may be required to assist customers with the self checkout in case of any malfunctioning. 9. 1c Customer Satisfaction The self checkout has brought about good customer services as customers don’t have 16 to spend time in the store queuing to pay for their shopping. (Boone and Kurtz 2006) stated that the use of technology is one of the greatest ways to improve upon customer satisfaction. This helps to build a good relationship with the customers which results in customer loyalty. In Tesco’s annual report and financial statement (2006 pg 10), 1. million customers prefer to use the self checkout in more than 200 stores weekly. This shows that customers are very satisfied with the system and this also has a huge impact on sales. 10. 0 Conclusion Although the self checkout has been well received by retailers and their customers, there are a few challenges with the system. When customers buy loose items like tomatoes in a small bag without a barcode, it will be priced by the weight. The customer has to go through the menu of the self checkout which often gets customers confused and frustrated especially those without any IT knowledge.

Another problem is when a customer has only one item and scans it the system gives a warning if it is not placed in the bagging area. This often irritates customers. Minors also use the self checkout to purchase alcohol and this could result in Tesco losing its License to sell alcohol. Tesco being one of the successful world retailers and the UK’s leading retailer, it is an indisputable fact that the decision to implement the self checkout back in 2003 has contributed greatly to its success today. 11. 0 Recommendations

In light of the challenges listed above, it is recommended that a supervisor or trained staff is deployed at the checkout area from the opening of the store to closing to assist customers who encounter any difficulties using the system to avoid any delays in transactions and also to check the ID of anyone suspected to be a minor. The self checkout should be improved upon to make it more user friendly and also to reduce the rate at which it reports faults. 17 REFERE CE: Acur N. and Bititci U. (2004), ‘A balanced approach to strategy process’, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 4(4), pp. 388-408 Armstrong, M. , (1990), ‘Management Processes and Functions, Exeter, Short Run Press Armstrong, M. ,(2006), ‘Human Resource Management’, London, Kogan Page Clarke I. , Bennison D. and Guy C. (1994), ‘The Dynamics of UK Grocery Retailing at the Local Scale’, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 22(6), pp. 11-20 Clift, D. J. , (2007), ‘Lean World: The DNA of the Success and the Path to Prosperity’ Ipswich, Lean World Ltd Datamonitor (2003),’SWOT analysis of Tesco’. http://www. datamonitor. om, accessed on 26/7/09 Datamonitor (2003), ‘Company Profile: Tesco PLC analysis’, http://www. datamonitor. com, accessed on 26/7/09 Datamonitor (2004), ‘Company Profile: Tesco PLC analysis’. http://www. datamonitor. com, accessed on 01/8/09 Food and Drinks, (2003), Tesco begins self checkout trail, http://www. foodanddrinkeurope. com/Retail/Tesco-begins-self-checkout-trial, accessed on 15/7/09 McKenna, E,. and Beech, N. , (2008), ‘Human Resource Management: A concise Analysis’ 2nd ed. , FT, Prentice Hall Mintel Report (2004), ‘Food Retailing:UK, Retail Intelligence’, http://www. intel. com, accessed on 25/7/09 Montana,P,J. , and Charnov, B. H. , (2008), ‘ Management’ 4th ed. Leavitt,h,j(1989), ‘ Managerial psychology’, Chicago, University of Chicago Targett, D. , Grinshaw, D, J. , and Powell,P. , (1999), ‘IT in Business: A Manager’s Casebook’, Oxford, A Butterworth-Heinemann Tupper, C, S. , and Deszca, G. , (2008), ‘Toolkit for Organizational Change’, London, Sage Publication 18 Holbeche, L. , (2006), ‘Understanding Change’, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann 19 APPE DIX 1. Check out Machine 20 Interview 1: I TERVIEW GUIDE FOR TESCO MA AGER (A DY) . When did Tesco implement the self check out system 2. What made the company decide to use the self checkout 3. Where was if first introduced 4. How was it implemented 5. Did you get any resistance to its implementation? 6. Who resisted the change (cashiers, supervisors, managers, customers) 7. How did you minimize resistance of staff and others concerned 8. Did you train all cashiers who are already employed or u employed new staff specifically for self check outs 9. Did customers like the change now and what about now 10. What are the benefits to Tesco system 21

Interview 2 Branch Manager Mr. Zahedul Hussain HORNSEY HIGH STREET EXPRESS, 46-50 HIGH STREET, LONDON, GREATER LONDON, N8 7NX Q: DO YOU THI K YOUR CUSTOMER PREFER TO USE SELF CHECKOUT SERVICE BECAUSE THEY ARE EFFICIE T? The new self-checkouts, which went live in early September, will provide Tesco with added flexibility to efficiently serve customers at all hours, through the store’s busy lunchtimes and after-work peaks. Self-checkout has proved very popular with customers in other stores. It will provide busy customer with convenient service and give them choice how to pay.

Q: WHAT IS YOUR OPI IO OF THE SELF SERVICE CHECKOUT? A: customer with less items than 5, don’t need to queue at the long checkouts with staff on them. Allow customers who are in rush to quickly efficiently pay for their items. Q: DO YOU THI K THEY ARE COST EFFECTIVE I HELPI G RU YOUR STORE? A S: COST EFFECTIVE THROUGH OT EEDI G STAFF. The benefit of self checkout machines to the retailer is a significant reduction in staffing levels, as one assistant is usually sufficient to run up to six self-checkout machines at any given time, and greater customer throughput. I G 22

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