First outing of a literature review is to embed the current study in the existing structure of knowledge The literature review allows you to show the reader your understanding of the robber and its structure. It offers a brief summary of the previous ivory that is clearly related to the problem of your study. Important, because you cannot assume that every reader is knowledgeable about the field. Major concern: whether the literature reviewed is exhaustive and unbiased. Additional: evidence often points in different directions.
Meta analysis Often numerous articles have been published on a specific topic: e. G. , job satisfaction productivity Meta analysis allows you to summarize the studies quantitatively Advantages Capability to deal with many studies on same topic Capability to detect more complex patterns Disadvantages Studies need to be similar Only quantitative criteria can be assessed Comparing apples and oranges? Systematic review process: Planning Conducting review Reporting and dissemination SIS web Of knowledge: chimpanzee poor arteriole?? Www. Lib. Oho. Ca/tutorials W)or filminess over literature review. 3. 2 Assessment Of a ‘good’ literature review Basic: decent account of literature and inform reader about what has been done. Seasoning: point out why your study makes an important contribution to the field. LIAR changes from description/summary to own work. . 3 Critical review To assess the quality of a text and to provide a short summary. Structure: Introduction Summary Critique Conclusion Not only negative critique. 3. Process and organization LIAR is iterative process of: Searching information Assessing obtained information Synthesize assessments Literature search: ADVANCED SEARCHING C for step 2 to reduce pool. Peer review: is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work. Literature sources Secondary’ primary sources combined. Compilations of information. Electronic databases Indexes and bibliographies Dictionaries Encyclopedia Handbooks Directories Primary source: original work. Lull-text publications Of theoretical and empirical studies and represent the original work. Primary data: data gathered by yourself. Academic journals Professional journals Books Newspapers Conference Proceedings Theses Criteria for the relevance and value of articles Chapter 4 Ethics in Business research 4. 1 What are research ethics? Ethics are norms or standards of behavior that guide moral choices about our behavior and our relationships with others Demonology: Deontological moral yester are characterized primarily by a focus upon adherence to independent moral rules or duties.
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Teleology: Teleological moral systems are characterized primarily by a focus on the consequences which any action might have (for that reason, they are often referred to as consequentiality moral systems, and both terms are used here). The goal is to ensure that no one is harmed or suffers adverse consequences from research activities Addresses question of how to conduct research in a moral and responsible way. 4. Ethical treatment of participants Researcher should follow 3 guidelines to safeguard against participant: Begin tat collection by explaining to the participant the benefits expected from the research Explain to the participants that their rights and well-being will be adequately protected, and say how this will he done Be certain that interviewers obtain the informed consent of the participant Deception The participant is told only part of the truth or when the truth is fully compromised To prevent biasing the participants before the survey or experiment To protect the confidentiality off third Para Issues related to protecting participants Informed consent disclosing the procedures Of the proposed survey or Other research design fore requesting permission to proceed with the study. Debriefing participants Involves several activities that follow the collection of data Right to privacy/ confidentiality Once confidentiality has been given, it is essential to protect that confidentiality. Non-disclosure confidentiality Data collection in cyberspace Data mining issues: privacy and consent, 4. Ethics and the sponsor Research client = sponsor Ethical issues related to the client Sponsor non-disclosure Companies dissociate themselves from the sponsorship of a research project Sensitive nature Of research question; testing new product Purpose non-disclosure Involves protecting the purpose Of the study or its details. Idea not yet patented Findings non-disclosure Between company and researchers to conceal its identity or study purpose To remain data and findings confidential Right to quality research entails; Providing a research design appropriate for the question Maximizing sponsors value for the resources expended Providing data-handling and reporting techniques appropriate for the data collected. Ethics related to the sponsor Sometimes researchers will be asked by sponsors to participate in unethical behavior.
Violating confidentiality, changing or creating data To avoid coercion by the sponsor the researcher should: Educate sponsor to the purpose of research Explain researcher’s role Explain how distortion of the truth leads to future problems If necessary, terminate relationship With sponsor Ethical issues related to researcher and team members Safety Ethical behavior Of assistants Protection of anonymity 4. 6 Ethical obligations towards the research community Unethical conduct on a sliding scale Speculative interpretation of results Neglecting limitations of research Capitalizing on chance (reporting the best) Fabrication of data Plagiarism Chapter 5 Quantitative and qualitative research 5. 1 Qualitative and quantitative studies Distinction based on kind of information used. Quantitative: number, figures. How often things are being said. Qualitative: words, sentences Both are useful in business science depending on the question one is interested in. 5. Research design classifications Research design: A plan for selecting the sources and types Of information used to answer research questions A framework for specifying the relationships among the study variables A blueprint that outlines each procedure from the hypothesis to the analysis Classifications of design Purpose of the study Descriptive study tries to explain relationships among variables Causal study is how one variable produces changes in another Predictive study attempts to give a good estimate of what will happen in the future Degree of research question crystallization Exploratory study is usually to develop hypotheses or questions for further research Formal study is to test the hypotheses or answer the research questions posed Methods of data collection Monitoring, which includes observational studies Interrogation/communication studies Archival sources
Research control variables In an experiment, the researcher attempts to control and/or manipulate the variables in the study (quantitative) In an ex post facto design, the researcher has no control over the variables; they can only report what has happened The time dimension Cross-sectional studies are carried out once and represent a snapshot of one point in time Longitudinal studies are repeated over an extended period The research environment Field conditions, the research is conducted under real-life conditions (surveys belong to this category) Laboratory conditions, respondents are observed or questioned in a laboratory Simulations are based on mathematical models and not on real data The topical scope Statistical studies or survey studies attempt to capture a population’s characteristics by making inferences from a samples characteristics Case studies place more emphasis on a full contextual analysis trotter events or conditions and their interrelations A participant’s perceptions Usefulness to a design may be reduced when people in the study perceive that research is being conducted participants’ perceptions influence the outcomes of the research 5. 3 Exploratory, descriptive and causal studies
Exploratory Exploration is particularly useful when researchers lack a clear idea of the problems ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Data collection Qualitative techniques (experience survey) – in depth or elite interviews – conversational approach – observation – used to generate new ideas by an inductive process . Interview – not only key persons, but also peripheral persons Secondary data: studies made by others for own purposes – prior studies – documents Focus groups – Composition tooth group rather homogeneous (it intended participants are heterogeneous, consider splitting the group) Quality of outcomes depends crucially on ability of the moderator to trigger discussions Two-stage design – exploration in the first stage to develop a sound design – second stage can be further exploration or explanation etc. Descriptive study Purpose: answerers, when, what and how much questions.
Provide an accurate account of the current State Of affairs Cross-tabulations and bi-variant correlations are important statistics Causation The essential element Of causation is A “produces” 8 or A “forces” B to occur Mill’s method of agreement Requirements Cooperation between A and B If A occurs B also occurs, if A is absent B is also absent and if there is less of A there is also less of B Time order A must occur before B. Exclusiveness of A as cause No other possible causes for B Causal relationships Symmetrical In which two variables fluctuate together but we assume the changes in neither variable are due to changes in the other Reciprocal When two variables mutually influence or reinforce each them Asymmetric Changes in one variable are responsible for changes in another variable. 4 types of asymmetrical causal relationship (Exhibit 5. 6, p 162) Stimulus- response
Property-Disposition Disposition -Behavior Property-Behavior Achieving the ideal experimental design In addition to requirements: Control Random assignment: each person in the study must have an equal chance of exposure to each level of the independent variable Matching: Randomization Equivalence between experimental and control groups is determined. Ex-post facto design: from after the action (hypothesis) Post hoc fallacy: Not use what you are researching don’t another conclusion is going to be. So don’t really know vatu to do with IL_ Chapter 6 Sampling Strategies 6. 1 unit of Analysis Unit of analysis: important step in research design. Describes the level at which the research is performed and which object are researched.
Organizations or management decisions. Unit of analysis not the same as respondent of research questions I_JOB is strongly related to: What is our research problem and what do we really want to answer? What do we need to measure to answer our research problem? What do we want to do with the results to the study? To whom do we address it in our conclusions? 6. 2 The nature of sampling Population element: subject on which the measurement is being taken. Population: total collection of elements about which we wish to make some inferences Sampling’ selection to reflect characteristics of the full set Census: a count of all the elements in a population. Why sample?