1. Complete the analogy: Sensation is to detection as perception is to interpretation. 2. Although Remi was sitting right next to his parents, he smelled a skunk minutes before they did. Explain. a Apparently Remi has a lower absolute threshold for skunk odor his parents have. 3. Greg’s bag of marbles is twice as heavy as Steven’s. If it takes 5 extra marbles to make Steven’s bag feel heavier, it will take 10 extra marbles to make Greg’s bag feel heavier. What does this best illustrate? 4. The local fire department sounds the 12 o’clock whistle.
The process by which your ears convert the sound waves from the siren into neural impulses is an example of what? Transduction 5. Explain why as people grow older, they are most likely to need glasses. the lens loses its ability to change shape readily 6. Damage to the fovea would have the greatest effect on what action? Visual acuity 7. Describe the step by step process of visual information. 8 When looking at the hands of a clock showing 8 o’clock, certain brain cells in the visual cortex are more responsive than when the hands show 10 o’clock. Why? Because of feature detection 9.
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The ability to simultaneously process the pitch, loudness, melody, and meaning of a song best illustrates what ability? Parallel processing 10. Evidence that some cones are especially sensitive to red light, others to green light, and still others to blue light is most directly supportive of the which theory. Young-Helmholtz 11. How will the perception of a purple flower change from a cloudy day to a bright sunny day? 12. The phenomenon of color constancy best demonstrates what concept? an object’s perceived color is influenced by its surrounding objects 13. Complete the analogy: Brightness is to light as volume is to sound. 14.
Complete the analogy: The retina is to the eye as the cochlea is to the ear. 15. After a small section of his basilar membrane was damaged, Joshua experienced a noticeable loss of hearing for high-pitched sounds only. Which theory best explains Joshua’s hearing loss? 16. Cocking your head would be most useful for detecting what about a sound? location 17. Damage to the basilar membrane is most likely to result in what symptom(s)? nerve deafness 18. A cochlear implant would be most helpful for those who suffer what type of symptoms? 19. On the day she is to be interviewed for an important new position, Monique awakens with a severe toothache.
During the interview she feels no pain; not until 30 minutes later does she become aware again of the troublesome toothache. Explain. 20. The green-colored ham and eggs had such a strange appearance that they tasted terrible to Sam. This illustrates the importance of what concept? sensory interaction 21. Which non-external part of your anatomy would play a role in quickly alerting you to a gas leak in your home? olfactory receptors 22. With her eyes closed, Sarah can accurately touch her mouth, nose, and chin with her index finger. Sarah’s accuracy illustrates the importance of what sense? 3. Which of anatomical feature plays the biggest role in our feeling dizzy and unbalanced after riding the Hulk at Universal Studios? 24. Gary was so preoccupied with his girlfriend’s good looks that he failed to perceive any of her less admirable characteristics. This best illustrates the dangers of what? 25. While a student provided directions to a construction worker, two experimenters rudely interrupted by passing between them carrying a door. The student’s failure to notice that the construction worker was replaced by a different person during this interruption illustrates what idea? hange blindness 26. Janice experienced motion sickness simply from watching a movie scene of a thrilling motorcycle chase. Her experience best illustrates the impact of what perceptual concept? visual capture 27. Explain the relationship between top-down processing and the organizational principles identified by Gestalt psychologists. 28. Because Zach, Taylor, and Chelsea were all sitting behind the same bowling lane, Kendra perceived that they were all members of the same bowling team. This best illustrates which organizational principle? 29.
What is the term for the organization of two-dimensional retinal images into three-dimensional perceptions? Binocular and monocular cues 30. What is illustrated by holding two index fingers in front of the eyes to create the perception of a floating finger sausage? Retinal disparity 31. Why is it so very dangerous to drive in foggy weather? (Hint – distance cue) relative clarity 32. The perception that Wiley Coyote is barreling after the Road Runner on a movie screen best illustrates what idea? 33. Although textbooks frequently cast a trapezoidal image on the retina, students typically perceive the books as rectangular objects.
This illustrates the importance of what concept? Shape consistancy 34. Danielle’s horse looks just as black in the brilliant sunlight as it does in the dim light of the stable. This illustrates what idea? Lightness consistency 35. Complete the analogy: John Locke is to Immanuel Kant as nurture is to nature. 36. Although he was wearing a pair of glasses that shifted the apparent location of objects 20 degrees to his right, Kirk was still able to play tennis very effectively. This best illustrates the value of what concept? Perceptual adaption 37.
After hearing rumors about the outbreak of an infectious disease, Elyana began to perceive her normal aches and pains as disease-related symptoms. Her reaction best illustrates the impact of what idea? Perceptual set 38. Although Jennifer sees her chemistry teacher several times a week, she didn’t recognize the teacher when she saw her at the movies. This best illustrates the importance of what concept? Context effects 39. What is the study of phenomena such as clairvoyance and telepathy called? Parapsychology 40. What does research state about psychics who have worked with police departments in an effort to solve difficult crimes?
Post cognition 41. What research provided the best evidence that infants possess visual memory capabilities? Habituation 42. The acquisition of a sense of object permanence is most closely associated with the development of what other childhood “phase”? stranger anxiety 43. When golden hamsters were repeatedly threatened and attacked while young, they suffered what type of long-term changes? Brain chemistry 44. “If you’re really concerned about the rights and dignity of women,” Camilla asked her older brother, “how can you justify buying pornographic magazines? Camilla’s question indicates that she is in what stage of development? Formal operational 45. The ratio of males to females first begins declining during what age? Prenatal development 46. What does research on the elderly show concerning their physical and mental health? 47. What are stage theories of adult development criticized for exaggerating? predictability of development 48. If your what brain system is destroyed, the left side of your brain could not control the movements of your right hand? Amygdala 49. To accurately infer cause and effect, experimenters should use what technique?
Random assignment 50. Which measure of variation is affected most by a few extreme scores? Free Response Questions Use your understanding of absolute thresholds, sensory adaptation, and pain control to argue that sensation is often influenced by our motives, expectations, and psychological states of mind. Our absolute thresholds combined into the signal detection theory which shows how our motives, expectations, and states of mind are combined to what we want to sense. Signal detection theory basically deals with predicting how and we detect the presence of a faint stimulus.
Every person signal detection chances as their consequences change which illustrates why motives are important with one’s sensation. Also with Weber’s law means that we have the ability get used to a certain stimuli which are basically sensory adaption. Sensory adaption lowers our sensitivity which offers the benefit to enable us to concentrate on significant changes in our environment. Meaning if our motives wanted to direct us to study, our sensory adaption would help us focus on that motive even among all distraction. In what sense is there a correspondence between the experiences of hue and pitch?
Discuss how the Young-Helmholtz theory of color vision and the place theory of pitch perception are conceptually similar or different. Both experiences of hue and pitch are illustrated by waves. Hues are the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light. Wavelength is the distance from one peak of a light or sound to the peak of the next. Both hue and pitch go through a lot of different parts in the eye and ear to be transmitted to the brain. Hues got to enter the retina, pupil, iris, and lens and the pitches must go through the outer, inner ear, and the cochlea.
Colors are explained in the Young Helmholtz Trichromatic theory and pitch in the place theory. The Helmholtz theory is a theory that the retina has three different color receptors. Place theory is with hearing which is the theory that joins pitch we hear with the place when the cochlea’s membrane is tuned on. Place theory believes that we hear different pitches because different sound waves trigger activity at different places along the cochlea’s membrane. The Young-Helmholtz theory also deals with waves that any color can be joined by light waves of the primary colors blue, red, and green.
A friend believes that the five human senses—seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, and feeling— are distinct and independent. Explain what is wrong with your friend’s belief. A friend believes that the five human senses are distinct and independent she is wrong. Sensory interaction is that one sense can influence the other sense just like when we smell something it influences our taste. Just like when we notice the location of a person we see the person, and we hear the voice. Even with the McGurk effect which demonstrates the interaction between hearing and seeing in speech perception.
So our senses work together, being dependent to help us to figure out the work. You have been asked to paint a picture that includes buildings, fields, a river, and a mountain. Describe how you would use at least five monocular cues to give your painting a sense of depth. I would use relative size painting trees of the same size in the trees some at the bottom of the page and others side by side at the bottom of the mountains. Interposition by painting trees in front of the buildings. Relative clarity by painting a river that winds thorugh the pictures and fades into a lake or something between the mountain tops.
Texture gradient the bark on the trees in front of the buildings is noticeable but there are no distinguishing bark markings on the trees at the bottom of the mountains. Relative height the use of horizontal line with the mountains, sky and sun painted above the line. Explain how research on size constancy, restored vision, perceptual adaptation, and perceptual sets serves to support and/or refute John Locke’s emphasis on the importance of learning in perception. Last night one of your mother’s best friends had a car accident.
Your mother feels guilty because three days ago she dreamt of such an accident but failed to warn her friend. How would you explain your mother’s experience? What advice would you give her? My mother’s experience was just a mixture of thoughts and memories of prior experiences with some similarity. All they needed was a dream plus the accident to connect them and this gave her that experience. The advice I would give her would be there is no way to have known that this was going to happen. She is just looking for an explanation out of guilt and fear. In other words it was just survivors guilt.