Sleep Deprivation Assignment

Sleep Deprivation Assignment Words: 1906

Gogh, Tong, Chin-Leone, Low, & Lee (2001 ) conducted a study to determine the adverse effects of sleep deprivation and how it relates to physical performance. This was an experimental single blind study; researchers randomly and equally chose fourteen males and assigned the males to two groups. The control group (group one) experienced normal sleep without interruption while the experimental group (group two, sleep deprived) was kept awake throughout the night. Researchers did not use a placebo in this study. Researches kept both groups housed at a military camp in doors ender normal office lighting.

Both groups were allowed to do light reading and watch television to occupy their time during the day. On day one researchers collected saliva samples rotary and grip tests were performed as well on both groups at four specified times starting at 8:00 a. M. And ending at 12:00 midnight when the control group went to sleep. While the experimental group provided additional samples in the early morning hours at two specified times of 3:00 a. M. And 6:00 a. M. On day two researchers conducted their tests at three specified times starting at 8:00 a. M. And ending at 6:00 . M.

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Researchers analyzed the saliva samples for variations in melatonin and cortical levels (Gogh, et al. , 2001 Their operational definitions of factors they studied included: rotary pursuit test (psychosomatic performance was evaluated using the rotary pursuit task), grip strength test (using the preferred hand grip strength was measured using a grip dynamiter), hormone variables (melatonin and cortical levels were monitored for variations). Researchers analyzed the tests and hormone variables to compare and contrast psychosomatic, strength, and hormone levels between the groups.

The study consisted of 14 healthy male military service members between the age of 20 and 30 with no history of health or sleep problems and free of medication and drugs (Gogh, et al. , 2001). Researchers set out to study sleep deprivation as it relates to modern work place. Sleep deprivation is a common condition related to extended work hours, shift work, and night work. Military along with doctors and nurses have jobs that demand high levels Of mental and physical performance that can seriously affected by sleep deprivation. Researchers sample was randomly selected.

The sample was not a representative sample of the population the researchers set out to study. Because it did not include doctors or nurses and it solely consisted of males between the ages of 20 and 30 (Gogh, et al. , 2001 The study showed that one night of sleep deprivation had a significant effect with physiological changes the next afternoon with respect to melatonin and cortical levels in the saliva. However researchers did not observe any impairment in tracking and muscular strength performance (Gogh, et al. , 2001). Potholder et al.

Article Summary Potholder et al. (2004) wanted to determine why there was a transient improvement in about 60% of depressed patients. Since abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HAP) axis is associated with depression researchers measured cortical secretion before, during, and after one night of sleep deprivation (Potholder, et al. , 2004). Researchers theorized that sleep deprivation had an impact on cortical secretion in patients with major depression disorders as compared to baseline conditions prior to sleep deprivation.

And that the HAP axis is dampened by sleep deprivation, but only for a short time. This was a descriptive study: researchers conducted a relational study to measure the impact of sleep deprivation on patients with major depressive disorders. Researchers were looking for correlation between sleep deprivation and cortical secretion. Blood samples were taken from 15 UN-medicated depressed inpatients who volunteered in a polysaccharide and endocrine study. The samples were taken on three consecutive nights at 30 minute intervals before, during, and after sleep deprivation.

Researchers also collected saliva samples during the day at 30 minute intervals during the day before and after the sleep deprivation night Potholder, et al. , 2004). The operational definitions of the study included: researchers were trying to discover how one night of sleep deprivation effects depression and how it relates to the HAP axis in depressed patients. Exclusion criteria included any intake Of psychotropic drugs during and one week prior to the study, substance abuse, suicidal thoughts, history of endocrine disorders, pregnancy, postpartum depression, lactation and any sleep disorders other than depression-related insomnia.

Nights one and two patients were given time to adapt to the laboratory conditions, and searchers took baseline polysaccharide measures. On nights 3, 4, and 5, researchers took blood samples at 30-minute starting at 9:00 p. M. And continued through the night until 6:00 a. M. The next day. Researchers also collected saliva samples on days 4 and 5. Researchers collected the samples at 30-minute intervals between the hours of 8:00 a. M. And 10:00 p. M. The participants of the study consisted of female and male patients with severe depression.

The sample size consisted of nine females and six males with a mean age of 34. 1 (Potholder, et al. , 2004). Researchers set out to study pressed people. The sample consisted of patients who were picked based on the Structured Clinical Interview for ADSM-III-R and scored at least 18 points on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. No random assignment or selection was used for the study. No, this was not a representative sample of the population. Because most individuals with severe depression do not live in a controlled environment like was conducted in this study (Potholder, et al. 2004). Researchers found that 8 out 15 patients classified as responders showed at least a 30% improvement on the averaged values on the six-item Hamilton depression scale on the following day of the sleep deprivation night. Seven were considered non-responders. Four of the eight responders did not maintain this 30% improvement on the day after the recovery night. Results demonstrated that one night of sleep deprivation had sign efficient stimulatory effect on the HAP axis in UN-medicated depressed patients.

Cortical levels were also higher after sleep deprivation which might contribute to the clinical response (Potholder, et al. , 2004). Article Critique Gogh, et al. (2001) and Potholder, et al. (2004) both studied the effects of sleep deprivation. Gogh, et al. (2001) studied the effects of one night of sleep deprivation had on melatonin and cortical levels as well as physical performance. Potholder, et al. (2004) studied the temporary improvement that subjects with depression felt after one night of sleep deprivation. Gogh, et al. 2001 ) reported that the sleep deprived group had a significant increase in melatonin secretion after being deprived of sleep for 8 hours and there was no significant difference between the groups in cortical secretion. Whereas, the study by Potholder, et al. (2004) reported that patients with a severe oppressive episode had a significant although slight increase in nocturnal cortical levels. Overall the group did not show an increase in cortical after one night of sleep deprivation. The studies had similar results on the testing of cortical, there was no significant difference between the control groups and sleep deprived groups.

Melatonin was only tested in the Gogh et al. (2001 ) study and researchers noticed a significant increase in the sleep deprived group. Both experiments had very tight controls on their groups and did not evaluate their patients in real world conditions, which brings into question of owe accurate each study was. In the Gogh, et al. (2001) study researchers only randomly picked male subjects for their study although they wanted to discover the effects of sleep deprivation in individuals who perform jobs that require them to work at night or do shift work.

And they did not include any females and only chose individuals who were between the ages of 20 and 30 years of age. The Potholder, et al. (2004) study limited their groups to severely depressed patients and had to meet strict guidelines to be part of the study. With the strict control that both studies had brings into question he validity of the studies neither study was performed in real world conditions. They excluded so many factors in each study that it brings into question the accuracy of their results.

Both studies should be repeated, the Gogh, et al. (2001) study should be repeated using a mix Of females and males. The age range should also be increased to reflect those that are employed in the real world and subjects should perform tasks that are equal to their real world activities. Researchers should also use a different test to more accurately measure psychosomatic performances. The Potholder, et al. 2004) study should be done using random selection and allowing the patients to perform tasks equivalent to their real world daily activities.

Limitations from a multi-cultural perspective were prevalent in both studies. The Gogh, et al. (2001) study was conducted only using males within a specifies age range; this limits the results because females perform the same type work as males and may react differently to same tests. Also researchers confined the study groups to barracks not allowing them to act as if they were in the real world, which would have a significant effect on the results engendering that no one was allowed to over exert themselves. The Potholder, et al. 2004) study also had cultural limitations. The participants were only considered if they met several strict guidelines. They had to be diagnosed with major depression based on structured clinical study, be free of any psychotropic drugs during and a week prior to the study, substance abuse, and several other strict requirements. Patients were kept in a hospital and monitored 24 hours a day. Researchers did not use random selection and by only choosing those who met specific requirements they did not fleet the real world in relation to those with depressive disorders.

Both articles compare when it came to the results of the cortical tests, both saw no significant difference between the control and study groups. Each of the research teams had similar results when testing levels of melatonin; they both discovered an increase in the sleep deprived group, and the increased levels only lasted a short time. Only the Gogh, et al. (2001) study tested for psychosomatic performance. In order to improve our body of knowledge on sleep deprivation in relation to the Gogh, et al. (2001) study. Researchers would include both women and men in order to get an accurate reflection of the general population.

Testing should involve performing tasks that require high levels of mental and physical performance since that was originally pointed out at the beginning of the study. Also conducting a longitudinal study measuring how sleep deprivation affects people in the long-term. When considering improving our knowledge in relation to the Potholder, et al. (2004) study. It would be beneficial to test larger groups of people with different levels of depression in order test if there is any increase in duration f the effects. Testing larger groups and focusing on HAP activation to verify its therapeutic response may also be beneficial.

Conclusion Gogh, et al. (2001) and Potholder, et al. (2004) both conducted research on sleep deprivation. This author has compiled a summary for both articles and offered a critique of the articles. Both articles examined the effects of sleep deprivation and had similar results on two of the tests related to melatonin and cortical levels, limitations Of both studies have been presented by this author. To fully understand the effects of sleep deprivation on the human odd more studies should be conducted in order to further understand the negative and positive effects related to it.

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